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Article

French, 14th century, male.

Perhaps of German origin.

Painter (?), sculptor (?).

Jean d'Alaman the Elder is recorded as being in Montpellier in 1331. He was a consul of the Corporation eight times between 1354 and 1388. He was probably the father of Henri Alaman....

Article

German, 14th century, male.

Died before 1360.

Painter, sculptor (wood).

Meister Albertus was a citizen of the German town of Soest and worked in Lübeck around 1355.

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Died 1340, in Orvieto.

Draughtsman, sculptor (wood).

In 1305, Giovanni Ammannati was employed on the restoration of the bell-tower of the town hall in Siena. In 1329 he designed the stalls of Orvieto Cathedral, later supervising their execution. He is documented as living in Siena in ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Painter, sculptor (wood).

Angelus de Senis was a member of the Pisani School. An inscription on the base of a wooden statue of the Angel Gabriel states that he both carved and painted the piece. The statue, which can be seen at S Antonio Abate in Montalcino, is dated ...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Active in Picardy during the 14th century.

Born in Picardy.

Painter, sculptor.

In 1344 Enguerrand Aquosse was an architect and expert in Noyon.

Article

Artistic manifestations of Arthurian legends antedate surviving textual traditions and sometimes bear witness to stories that have not survived in written form. Thus the Tristan sculptures (c. 1102–17) carved on a column from the north transept of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela show that the story was in circulation at least a generation before the earliest surviving written text was composed. The one surviving manuscript of Béroul’s Tristan is unillustrated, while the fragments of Thomas’s version include a single historiated initial showing Tristan playing the harp (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Fr. d. 16, fol. 10). Although Eilhart von Oberge’s Tristrant, composed in the late 12th century, is the earliest version of the Tristan story to survive complete, the only surviving illustrated copy dates from the 15th century (c. 1465–75; Heidelberg, UBib., Cpg 346), while the Munich manuscript of Gottfried von Strassburg’s Tristan was made in south Germany ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born 1351; died 1435.

Painter, sculptor.

Baboccio de Piperno was a priest and worked in Naples. His first work is the sumptuous Gothic-style portal at Naples Cathedral. In 1412, with Alesius Dominicus, he executed the tomb of Margareta de Durazzo, wife of Charles III, for the church of S Francesco in Salerno....

Article

Barna  

Italian, 14th century, male.

Of Sienese origin; died 1380.

Painter.

Barna or Berna is not to be confused with the sculptor Barna da Turino da Siena . The frescoes painted by the artist at S Agostini in Siena, at S Spirito in Florence and in various churches in Cortona and Arezzo no longer survive. In ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Gubbio.

Architect, sculptor, painter (?).

In 1338, Bartolo di Cristoforo di Francesco worked in the church of S Maria dei Laici in Gubbio.

Article

French, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born c. 1335, in Valenciennes; died between 1403 and 1413, in Bourges.

Painter, illuminator, sculptor. Funerary monuments (recumbent statues).

Beauneveu has been described as the most distinguished sculptor and painter of his time. His hand was responsible for the illuminations in the ...

Article

Bertram  

German, 14th – 15th century, male.

Active in Hamburg.

Born c. 1345, probably in Minden (North Rhine-Westphalia); died before 1415.

Painter, sculptor (wood).

Lübeck School, Hamburg School.

Bertram brought an independent approach and highly developed aesthetic sense to the art of his time. He excelled in the painting of animals and delightful landscapes. His works are important not only for their artistic quality but also from a historical point of view, as the figures in his religious scenes are all dressed in the fashionable styles of his time. Although not all of Bertram's work has been traced, a good deal has survived, including a series of altarpieces in the churches of Doberan, Kiel, Tempzin and Hanover. There are many contemporary references to him: we known that he was a master of painting in Minden on the River Weser, that in ...

Article

Hans Georg Gmelin

(b ?Minden, fl 1367; d Hamburg, between Feb 20, 1414 and May 13, 1415).

German painter, illuminator, and wood-carver. His major work, the Grabow Altarpiece (Hamburg, Ksthalle), a combination of carved figures and painted scenes, is one of the high points of late 14th-century north German art. In the many documentary references to him in Hamburg, he is referred to as ‘painter’, although he was also responsible for colouring statues. At least the designs of the sculpture of some of his altars have been attributed to him. His lively narrative style, with expressive and forceful gestures, made him one of the most influential of early German artists.

Probably originally from Minden in Westphalia, Bertram is mentioned for the first time in the Hamburg city accounts of 1367, when he was paid for painting a Virgin (untraced), restoring a sculpted angel and painting a letter case. Sixty documents relate to him from his lifetime, an astounding number for a 14th-century artist, and before 1487 he was the only painter mentioned by name in the Hamburg records. In ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Venice.

Painter, sculptor (wood).

Biagio di Luca da Zara is mentioned in 1384 as a pupil of and assistant to the painter Jacobello Bonomo.

Article

Italian, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born 1373, probably in Florence; died 6 May 1452, in Florence.

Painter, fresco artist, sculptor. Religious subjects.

Florentine School.

From 1420 onwards, Bicci di Lorenzo undertook many commissions for noble families and frescoes and decorations for chapels in S Lucia dei Bardi, S Marco and the Trinità. In ...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

French, 14th century, male.

Sculptor, painter.

Mentioned in Bourges in 1304.

Article

Rosa Alcoy

[Castayls, Jaime]

(b ?Berga; fl 1345–79).

Catalan sculptor, painter and architect. A citizen of Barcelona, he must have been trained among Italians, but in a school that was acquainted with developments in France and receptive to Sienese influences—possibly Pisa or Naples. Mallorcan painting—especially manuscript illumination, which was influenced by Pisan art—and the work of the Master of the San Michele in Borgo Pulpit (a Pisan sculptor who worked on the shrine of S Eulalia, 1327–39, in Barcelona Cathedral) also constituted important formative influences on his style. He married the daughter of Ferrer Bassa and was associated with the Bassa workshop in a commission for works for Saragossa in 1346. Like Ferrer Bassa, he was responsible for introducing Italianizing elements into Catalonia.

No authenticated paintings by Jaume Cascalls survive, however, and he is now known primarily for his sculpture, notably for the signed alabaster retable of the Virgin (c. 1345; 2.07×3.35 m) in S María, Cornellà del Conflent, which shows Italian characteristics in the treatment of continuous narrative and in the technique, in which some areas are deliberately left unfinished for expressive effect. At about this time, Jaume worked in Perpignan for the Aragonese crown. By ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Venice.

Painter, sculptor.

In 1374 Veneziano Caterino produced an altar painting (which has since disappeared) for the church of S Giorgio Maggiore in Venice, and a Coronation of the Virgin in 1375. Records cite a painter called Caterino Veneziano, who died prior to ...

Article

Flemish School, 14th century, male.

Died at the end of 1408.

Painter, illuminator.

He was the son of the sculptor Quentin Coene, and in 1388 painted a Last Judgement for the Magistrates' Hall in Bruges. He was an officer of the Guild in 1397. A Jehane Coene, master painter in the town of Bruges, worked at the château of Male ...