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Article

1st century, male.

Active in the time of Hadrian.

Born to a family originally from Aphrodisias in Caria.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

The remains of a Group in marble (Zeus, Poseidon, Helios, Heracles) by Flavius Andronicus, working with a relative, were found in Rome. They are now in the Glyptotek Ny Carlsberg in Copenhagen. The baroque style of the work is reminiscent of the ...

Article

Steven F. Ostrow

[il Bresciano; Prospero da Brescia]

(b Brescia, 1555–65; d Rome, 1592).

Italian sculptor. According to Baglione, he went to Rome from his native Brescia as a youth. He studied anatomy and the art of ancient Rome, and he gained fame for his anatomical models and small bozzetti. His skill as a modeller resulted in several commissions from Gregory XIII, including stucco angels (1580–81) for the Pauline Chapel and the Scala Regia in the Vatican. The success of these elegant, classicizing figures led to the commission (after 1585) for the sculptural components of the tomb of Gregory XIII in St Peter’s, consisting of a seated statue of the Pope, allegorical figures of Charity, Faith, Religion and Justice, and two angels bearing the papal arms. The tomb has undergone numerous transformations and much of its sculpture has been lost; its original appearance is recorded, however, in several engravings and in a drawing by Ciro Ferri (Florence, Uffizi). The surviving stucco figures of ...

Article

2nd – 3rd century, male.

Active in the early Christian period.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Maetius Aprilis' name and the tools of his trade (hammer and chisel) are preserved on an epitaph in the Catacombs of Priscilla in Rome.

Article

Mark D. Fullerton

(fl Rome, mid-1st century bc).

Greek sculptor. He was one of the greatest masters of his time, though referred to only by Pliny. A contemporary of Pasiteles, like him he worked in a variety of media (marble statuary, marble and/or metal vessels) and believed in the value of preliminary models, which were themselves sold at high prices. Arkesilaos was commissioned by L. Lucullus or his son to make a statue of Felicitas (Pliny: XXXV.clv–clvi), which was never completed. His most famous work was the cult statue for Caesar’s Temple of Venus Genetrix (ded. 46 bc). Hadrianic coin representations of this deity show a figure close to the late 5th century bc Fréjus Aphrodite type. If these represent Arkesilaos’ cult statue, then it must have been classicizing in style. The Temple of Venus, however, was extensively rebuilt in Trajanic times, so the statue depicted may have been a 2nd-century ad replacement. Only two other works are mentioned: a group of ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

male.

Active during the Roman age.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

His signature ex officina C. At. Auli can be seen on the hip of a figure wearing a toga (Agrippa?) found in the theatre at Merida (Spain).

Article

2nd – 3rd century, male.

Active at the beginning of the Christian age.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

The name of Vincentius Aurelius, accompanied by the tools of his trade (hammer, square etc.), has come down to us from a Roman epitaph. He specialised in the carving of sarcophagi....

Article

2nd century, male.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Cincius Publicus Salvius made the enormous pine-cone that surmounted the Mausoleum of Hadrian.

Article

1st century, male.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Coponius made a number of statues for the Theatre of Pompey, according to Pliny and Suetonius.

Article

1st century, male.

Active in Rome AD.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Cossutius' name is signed on two antique statues, one of which was discovered in the house of Antoninus Pius at Lanuvium.

London (British Mus.): statue from Lanuvium

Article

1st century, male.

Active in Rome AD.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

This Cossutius, known from a signed work, seems to have been active at the time of Augustus and Tiberius.

Article

2nd – 1st century, male.

Born in Groanda (Pisidia), Turkey.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Daimenes worked at Halicarnassus and was buried there.

Article

Decius  

1st century, male.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Decius made a colossal head in bronze, placed in the Capitol by the consul P. Lentulus in 77 BC.

Article

male.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

The name of Diadumenus, a Greek artist of the Roman period, appears on a cippus ( a small, low pillar) now in the Vatican Museum in Rome, and also on a beautiful low relief in the Louvre in Paris, showing Jupiter, Juno and Thetis...

Article

1st century, male.

Born in Athens.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Diogenes made a group of caryatids (supporting columns in human form) for the Pantheon of Agrippa in Rome.

Article

2nd century, male.

Sculptor. Mythological subjects. Statuettes.

Ancient Roman.

London (British Mus.): Seated Hercules (statuette, signed)

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

(fl late 1st century bc).

Roman gem-engraver active in Rome at the time of Augustus (27 bcad 14). According to Pliny, Dioskourides made ‘an excellent likeness’ of the Augustus emperor on the emperor's personal seal, which was also used as a state seal by successive emperors (Natural History 37.8). The story is repeated by Suetonius, who adds that Augustus ‘at first used the figure of a sphinx, afterwards the head of Alexander the Great, and at last his own, engraved by the hand of Dioskourides’ (Life of Caesar Augustus 50).

No fewer than 11 intaglios and cameos signed by Dioskourides survive (Richter, nos 664–72; Plantzos, 96–7), and many more have been attributed to him and his workshop. Dioskourides signed his name in Greek, with his name in the genitive case, as was customary for gem-engravers in the Greek world. Although several Roman artists of the Augustan period assumed a Greek professional name to enhance their business prospects, or signed their Italian names in Hellenized form and script, it seems that Dioskourides was actually of Greek origin. He belonged, therefore, to the wave of artists and craftsmen who came to Italy in the ...

Article

2nd century, male.

Born in the middle of the 2nd century BC, in Bithynia.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Doidalses is mentioned by Pliny as the sculptor of a Bathing Aphrodite. In Pliny's day this work was in the temple of Juno in Rome.

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

[Satra]

Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc–7th century bc).

Ancient Eleutherna is a typical example of a Cretan polis (city) inhabited continuously from at least from the 9th century bc (the so-called ‘Dark Age’ of Greek history) to the late Roman and Byzantine period (6th–7th century bc). Even before that, archaeological finds suggest the existence of a continuous presence on the site from the late Neolithic (4th millennium bc) through to a flourishing Minoan site of the 3rd to 2nd millennia bc. Although later construction all but eliminated traces of prehistoric architecture, there is still significant evidence to confirm unbroken habitation. In historical times (9th century...

Article

1st century, male.

Sculptor.

Ancient Roman.

Entochus is said by Pliny to have made the statues of Jupiter and Oceanus that decorated the houses of Asinius Pollio.