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Article

Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 11 January 1911, in Tournai; died 1996.

Sculptor (metal), ceramicist, engraver, lithographer. Stage sets, designs for tapestries, architectural integration.

Pierre Caille attended evening classes at the academy in Tournai, and in 1929-1930 worked in Joris Minne's workshop at the École d'Architecture et des Arts Decoratifs in Brussels, founded by Henry van de Velde in ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 21 January 1885, in Rothiemurchus (Inverness-shire); died 9 May 1978, in Aldermaston (Berkshire).

Painter, artisan, draughtsman, lithographer, ceramicist, stage set designer. Mythological subjects, landscapes, genre scenes, portraits, still-lifes, flowers. Murals, stage sets.

Bloomsbury Group, Omega Workshops.

Duncan Grant's father was a major in the British army and he spent the first nine years of his life in India and Burma. The Grants returned to Britain in 1894 and eight years later, aged seventeen, Duncan joined the Westminster School of Art. He visited Italy two years later, where he admired the works of Piero della Francesca and Masaccio, and in 1906 he spent a year in Paris where he attended Jacques-Emile Blanche's Académie de La Palette. During his time in Paris he met fellow British artists Wyndham Lewis, Henry Lamb and Augustus John and became acquainted with Vanessa and Clive Bell. He returned to London in 1907 where he began a relationship with the economist Maynard Keynes. Together, they made regular trips to Europe and North Africa....

Article

Judi Freeman

(b Argentan, Orne, Feb 4, 1881; d Gif-sur-Yvette, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 17, 1955).

French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas.

Born in rural Normandy, Léger often said that he was of ‘peasant stock’. Although his father was a cattle merchant, Léger was sent by his family to Caen in 1897 to be an apprentice in an architect’s office, where he remained until 1899. In 1900 he went to Paris and again worked in an architect’s office as a draughtsman. After compulsory military service in ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active from 1957 in France.

Born 1929, in Turin.

Painter, engraver, potter. Designs for mosaics, stage sets.

Ricardo Licata was a pupil of the art school and the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, and it was the discovery of Paul Klee that determined his future artistic development. He settled in Paris in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born in New York.

Engraver, sculptor, designer. Stage costumes and sets, murals, ceramics.

Valerie J. Maynard studied at the New School, New York, and Goddard College, Plainfield (Vermont). She is based in Baltimore (Maryland). She has exhibited in Sweden, Nigeria and, in the USA, at the Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, in ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active in Uruguay, Argentina and France from 1938.

Born 17 December 1919, in Pontevedra (Galicia).

Painter, sculptor, engraver, ceramicist. Murals, stage sets.

When he finished his studies in Spain, Leopoldo Novoa went to live in Uruguay and then Argentina from 1938 to 1961...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 12 February 1905, in Bully-les-Mines (Pas-de-Calais); died 14 May 1993, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including charcoal/wash), engraver, potter, scenographer. Figures, portraits, nudes, rustic scenes, fishing scenes, seascapes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes, animals. Wall decorations, stage costumes and sets...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 May 1871, in Paris, France; died 13 February 1958, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver, potter. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes. Stage sets, designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries.

Georges Rouault completed his primary education in 1885 and was apprenticed to stained-glass artists – first the Tamonis, then Hirsch. He received a direct offer from Albert Besnard for stained-glass windows for the School of Pharmacy to be made from his design sketches, but he refused out of loyalty to his employer. He was encouraged to consider painting as a career, having been introduced to the appreciation of art by his grandfather, Alexandre Champdavoine, who, modest white-collar worker though he was, knew and admired Honoré Daumier, Gustave Courbet, and Édouard Manet. Rouault achieved entry to the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1891, first in Elie Delaunay’s studio, then in Gustave Moreau’s (where he met Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, Rudolf Lehmann, Henri Evenepoel, and others). Though he failed twice at the Prix de Rome, he won the Prix Chenavard in 1894 and, by 1900, he had obtained a mention and a bronze medal. In 1903, as Gustave Moreau’s executor, he became the curator of the Musée Gustave Moreau in Paris....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 24 October 1883, in New York; died 18 November 1945, in Brandenburg.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, decorative designer. Figures. Designs for ceramics, stage sets.

Jugendstil, Art Deco.

Paul Scheurich studied at the arts academy in Berlin from 1902 to 1904. In ...

Article

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 29 April 1916, in Trebon; died 17 June 1978.

Painter, pastellist, engraver (dry-point), illustrator, ceramicist. Animals, insects. Stage sets, cartoon strips, animated films.

Zdenek Seydl worked in a variety of media, including cartoon strips and puppet films. As painter and dry-point engraver he adapted Jugendstil scrolls and arabesques to the representation of animals and sometimes even the microscopic world of insects, while as an illustrator he often depicted the horrors of fascism and nazism. He was deeply influenced by Chinese art, travelling to that country in ...

Article

Mark Allen Svede

(b nr Cēsis, April 28, 1896; d Tbilisi, Georgia, July 14, 1944).

Latvian painter, printmaker, ceramicist, interior designer, tage and film set designer and theorist. He was the foremost ideologue for modernism in Latvia and was one of its greatest innovators. His militant defence of avant-garde principles befitted his experience as a soldier and as one of the artists who, after World War I, was denied a studio by the city officials and staged an armed occupation of the former premises of the Riga Art School. At the end of the war he painted in an Expressionist manner: In Church (1917; Riga, priv. col., see Suta, 1975, p. 19), for example, is an exaltation of Gothic form and primitivist rendering. Unlike his peers Jāzeps Grosvalds and Jēkabs Kazaks, he was extremely interested in Cubism and Constructivism, the theories of which informed his paintings, drawings, prints and occasional architectural projects of the 1920s. At this time he and his wife, the painter ...

Article

Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 13 January 1948, in Brussels.

Painter, engraver, potter. Stage sets.

Henri Vaneepoel trained at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. His paintings are in the New Figurative style. He created painted slides for stage sets for productions by Maurice Béjart's dance company, the Ballet du XXe Siècle....