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Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935, in Cincinnati.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, assemblage artist, happenings artist, draughtsman, lithographer, photographer.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jim Dine spent his childhood in his father’s painting and plumbing tool shop. He studied at the University of Cincinnati and then at Ohio University, leaving with a Bachelor of Arts in 1957. He also followed courses at Boston Museum School. In 1958 he settled in New York, participating in the birth of Pop Art and, more especially, Happening Art, participating in avant-garde group exhibitions. However, this allegiance to Pop Art has to be moderated to some extent; even though historically he lived this experience, he always added a somewhat poetic, sentimental nuance and retained an attachment to pictorial problems, something that brought him closer to another artist who found himself isolated during this period: Cy Twombly....

Article

Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Turin.

Painter, sculptor, installation artist, performance artist.

Computer Art (Virtual Art).

Gilardi came into favour with the great wave of Pop Art that broke over the USA, but stood apart from it, sympathising more with the exponents of Arte Povera. He creates his ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1 June 1937, in Nashville (Tennessee).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, performance artist, environmental artist, installation artist, film maker.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Born Charles Rogers Grooms, the red-headed Red Grooms studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1955...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Valrico (Florida).

Painter, assemblage artist, happenings artist.

Neo-Pop Art.

Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.).

Alex Hay combined real objects and printed images in the spirit of Pop Art. He produced happenings and wrote experimental theatre pieces. In ...

Article

Julia Robinson

(b Valrico, FL, 1930).

American performance artist and sculptor. Hay started out in the performance scene at Judson Memorial Church in downtown New York City in the early 1960s. He arrived in New York from Florida in 1959, after studying at the Florida State University (1953–8). His wife, the dancer Deborah Hay, was a key figure in the Judson Dance Theater, launched in the summer of 1962, and Alex Hay performed in many of its productions. In the early 1960s he assisted Robert Rauschenberg on set designs for Merce Cunningham, and danced with him with roller-skates and parachutes in Rauschenberg’s now famous performance piece Pelican (1963). After these collaborations, Hay was invited to participate in 9 Evenings: Theater & Engineering at New York’s 69th Regiment Armory (fall 1966). This initiative, conceived by Rauschenberg with critical contributions from the engineer Billy Klüver, was an idealistic effort to pair artists with engineers, to merge art and new technologies. That project evolved into ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Bradford, July 9, 1937).

English painter, printmaker, photographer, and stage designer. Perhaps the most popular and versatile British artist of the 20th century, Hockney made apparent his facility as a draughtsman while studying at Bradford School of Art between 1953 and 1957, producing portraits and observations of his surroundings under the influence of the Euston Road School and of Stanley Spencer. From 1957 to 1959 he worked in hospitals as a conscientious objector to fulfil the requirements of national service. On beginning a three-year postgraduate course at the Royal College of Art, London, in 1959, he turned first to the discipline of drawing from life in two elaborate studies of a skeleton before working briefly in an abstract idiom inspired by the paintings of Alan Davie.

Encouraged by a fellow student, R. B. Kitaj, Hockney soon sought ways of reintegrating a personal subject-matter into his art while remaining faithful to his newly acquired modernism. He began tentatively by copying fragments of poems on to his paintings, encouraging a close scrutiny of the surface and creating a specific identity for the painted marks through the alliance of word and image. These cryptic messages soon gave way to open declarations in a series of paintings produced in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 13 September 1928, in New Castle (Indiana).

Painter, sculptor. Stage sets, stage costumes, posters.

Pop Art.

Robert Indiana trained at the John Herron School of Art, Indianapolis, in 1945 and 1946, then at the Munson-Williams Proctor Institute, Utica (New York), Art Institute of Chicago from 1949 to 1953, Skowhegan School of Painting (Maine), University of Edinburgh and Edinburgh College of Art, and then in London. Afterward, he travelled to Mexico, Europe, and the interior of the USA. In 1958, he moved to New York and, in 1978, settled in Vinhalven, on an island in Maine....

Article

Mary Emma Harris

(b Detroit, Oct 16, 1927; d Sag Harbor, NY, Jan 13, 1995).

American painter, draughtsman, and performance artist. He studied with Josef Albers at Black Mountain College, NC, from 1945 to 1948, where he met John Cage, Merce Cunningham, and Richard Lippold. His collages, paintings, drawings, and performances have been associated with geometric abstraction, Pop art, Neo-Dada, and conceptual art, although they do not fit neatly into any existing categories. Relationship, correspondence, interaction, metaphor, and flux are all themes of Johnson’s work, which reflects an often witty and satirical, but essentially poetic, perception. Delicate collages such as Anna May Wong (1971; New York, Whitney) incorporate found objects, altered photographs, textured surfaces, drawing, painting, words and syllables, printed text, and other materials. Similar combinations of text and image were used in his book, The Paper Snake (New York, 1965). Operating from 1968 as the New York Correspondence School and from 1975 as Buddha University, he circulated collages and other materials using the US postal system, establishing ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Southampton.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman. Scenes with figures, figures. Stage sets, stage costumes.

Pop Art.

Allen Jones studied painting at Hornsey College of Art from 1955 to 1959, and from 1960 to 1961 (the intervening year was spent at the Royal College of Art in London). He travelled to Paris in 1958, where he discovered the work of Robert Delaunay. He taught in the USA in the mid-1960s, and then returned to live and work in London. He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1981 and a full member in 1986....

Article

Ulrike Lehmann

(b Nice, April 28, 1928; d Paris, June 6, 1962).

French painter, sculptor, performance artist and writer.

He was the son of the Dutch-born painter Fred Klein (b 1898), whose work was representational, and Marie Raymond (b 1908), who developed a reputation in the 1950s as an abstract artist, and whose abstraction was influential on the development of her son’s work. Although he had had no formal art training, he was already making his first serious attempts at painting by 1946 and showing his interest in the absoluteness of colour by formulating his first theories about monochrome. In 1946 he befriended Arman, with whom he was later to be associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement, and the writer Claude Pascal, whom he met at a judo class. Together they developed their interest in esoteric writing and East Asian religions. Klein became a student of the Rosicrucian Fellowship in 1946 and was influenced both by its mystical philosophy and by judo. In ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active from 1966 to 1972 in France, since 1972 in the USA.

Born 1942, in Tarrasa (Catalonia).

Sculptor of assemblages, performance artist.

Pop Art, Eat Art.

Antoni Miralda was a pupil at the school of textiles in Barcelona. In 1962, having been awarded a scholarship by the city of Barcelona, he travelled to Paris, where he worked in fashion photography. In ...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Active in the United States.

Born 1929, in Stockholm.

Sculptor, painter, mixed media, watercolourist, lithographer, draughtsman, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

The son of a Swedish consular official, Claes Oldenburg arrived in the United States with his family in 1929. From 1946 to 1950, he studied art and literature at Yale. After working as a reporter and illustrator, he abandoned journalism in 1952 and attended the Art Institute in Chicago until 1954, exhibiting thereafter in local galleries. In 1956, he settled in New York, where he survived on odd jobs, through which he became familiar with the New York street scene. He met Allan Kaprow, the American artist, art theorist, and main creator of ...

Article

Barbara Haskell

(Thure)

(b Stockholm, Jan 28, 1929).

American sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, performance artist, and writer of Swedish birth. He was brought from Sweden to the USA as an infant and moved with his family to Chicago in 1936 following his father’s appointment to the consulship there. Except for four years of study (1946–50) at Yale University in New Haven, CT, during which time he decided to pursue a career in art, Chicago remained his home until his move to New York in 1956. Within two years of this move, Oldenburg had become part of a group of artists who challenged Abstract Expressionism by modifying its thickly impastoed bravura paint with figurative images and found objects. Oldenburg’s first one-man show in 1959, at the Judson Gallery in New York, included figurative drawings and papier mâché sculptures. For his second show, also at the Judson Gallery, in 1960, shared with Jim Dine, Oldenburg transformed his expressionist, figurative paintings into a found-object environment, ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(Milton Ernest)

(b Port Arthur, TX, Oct 22, 1925; d Captiva Island, FL, May 12, 2008).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer, and performance artist. While too much of an individualist ever to be fully a part of any movement, he acted as an important bridge between Abstract Expressionism and Pop art and can be credited as one of the major influences in the return to favour of representational art in the USA. As iconoclastic in his invention of new techniques as in his wide-ranging iconography of modern life, he suggested new possibilities that continued to be exploited by younger artists throughout the latter decades of the 20th century.

Rauschenberg studied at Kansas City Art Institute and School of Design from 1947 to 1948 under the terms of the GI Bill before travelling to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian for a period of about six months. On reading about the work of Josef Albers he returned to the USA to study from autumn 1948 to spring ...

Article

Helen A. Harrison

[Grossberg, Yitzroch Loiza]

(b New York, Aug 17, 1923; d Southampton, NY, Aug 14, 2002).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, poet and Musician. He was a jazz saxophonist before he was encouraged to take up painting by two artist friends, Jane Freilicher and Nell Blaine (b 1922), who shared his enthusiasm for jazz. After brief service in the US Army Air Corps during World War II (1942–3), he studied with Hans Hofmann from 1947–8 in New York and Provincetown, MA. He painted for a short period under the influence of the Abstract Expressionists but, after seeing Pierre Bonnard’s retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in 1948, he began to apply his facility for drawing to figurative subjects extracted from the intimate circumstances of his family life and everyday surroundings. The first such pictures, for example Interior, Woman at a Table (c. 1948; New York, Pat Cooper priv. col., see Harrison, p. 29), were stylistically very close to Bonnard’s work, but in such works as ...

Article

Alfred Pacquement

(b Paris, Oct 29, 1930; d San Diego, CA, May 21, 2002).

French sculptor, writer, stage designer and film maker. She spent the first 20 years of her life in New York. A self-taught artist, on her return to Europe she began to work in a style similar to art brut. She first came to public attention through the Shots series (1960–61; see 1980 exh. cat., pp. 14–15), ironic parodies of Art informel painting, comprising plaster reliefs incorporating pockets of paint, which burst when fired at by visitors to the exhibition, thus staining the surface. Through these works Saint Phalle became associated with Nouveau Réalisme. She produced reliefs and sculptures made of objets trouvés and plastic toys; these were always playful and imaginary; see Die Waldaff, 1962. Monsters and other fantastic creatures were also among her favourite themes (e.g. King Kong, 1963; Stockholm, Mod. Mus.), while other assemblages were in the form of iconoclastic altars (e.g. O.A.S. Altar, 1962; priv. col., see ...

Article

Ingrid Severin

[Feinstein, Daniel Isaac]

(b Galaţi, Romania, March 27, 1930).

Swiss sculptor, performance artist and writer of Romanian birth. On the death of his father in 1942 he fled with his family to Switzerland, where he was adopted by his uncle Théophile Spoerri in Zurich. In 1950 he began studying classical ballet in Zurich. From 1952 he studied dance and mime in Paris, becoming principal dancer for the Berne Opera in 1954 while also working as stage designer, composer and choreographer for the Kellertheater. From 1957 to 1959 he was assistant director at the Landestheater in Darmstadt. These experiences in the theatre provided the background to the art that he began to produce after settling in Paris in 1959. In addition to organizing banquets, festivals and exhibitions, he established a publishing house, MAT (Multiplication d’Art Transformable), specializing in concrete poetry. In 1960 Spoerri met Yves Klein through Jean Tinguely (whom he had met in Basle in 1949) and became a founder-member of ...

Article

Grischka Petri

(b Leverkusen, nr Cologne, Oct 14, 1932; d Berlin, April 3, 1998).

German painter, sculptor, décollagist, composer, video artist, and performance artist. He was one of the fathers of the European Happening movement. Vostell studied typography, lithography, and painting in Cologne, Wuppertal, Paris, and Düsseldorf (1950–58). In 1959 he married Mercedes Guardado Olivenza in Cáceres, Spain. Early in his career he discovered Décollage , a technique of cutting, tearing away or otherwise removing pieces of an image. His spelling of the term, dé-coll/age, underlined the term’s dialectical implications of destruction and creation. In the 1960s he worked with chemicals to transfer the process to photography, video, and film, turning it into an all-encompassing strategy of image deconstruction, often within the iconographic framework of violence and sexuality as communicated by mass media.

Vostell’s combined décollage with car parts and television sets, being one of the first artists using such a device as part of a sculpture in 1958. In 1962 he joined the ...

Article

Julia Robinson

(b Burlington, IA, 1923; d Martins Creek, PA, Sept 21, 1988).

American multimedia and performance artist. Watts was a pioneering figure in the development of Fluxus and Pop art . Before settling squarely into Fluxus, Watts was associated first with both because of his use of ready-made objects, his concern with space-time activation of the work and for the insertion of objects into performance frameworks. Watts was a pioneering figure in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s experimentation with new media (e.g., industrial plastics, aluminum foil) and emergent technologies as well as new distribution mechanisms. He trained as a mechanical engineer before turning full-time to art, studying in New York at the Art Students League, and at Columbia University, and receiving his MA in Art History (1951). Watts taught at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, from 1952 to 1984, where he had a significant influence on a generation of students who would produce some of the leading intermedia art of the 1960s and 1970s. His own art began at the cutting edge of new media experimentation—with works of the 1950s incorporating electric light, incandescent wire, random circuitry—and intelligently extending the critique established by the Duchampian readymade. In the early 1960s he made original contributions to the emergent vocabulary of everyday objects that would define advanced art of the 1960s. In particular, his deployment of photography—with actual objects to fracture the “real” (e.g., photographs of food and cutlery, mounted as a place setting in ...