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Ian Alsop and Kashinath Tamot

[Chin. Anige; A-ni-ke; A-ni-ko; Nepalese: Arnike]

(b c. 1244; d c. 1306).

Nepalese sculptor, architect, and painter who worked in Tibet and China. A Newar from the Kathmandu Valley, Anige is now honoured in his native land as Nepal’s most famous artist of early times. He left his home at the age of 17 or 18, joining the myriads of wandering Newar artists who served the courts of the great lamas and emperors of Tibet and China. He so impressed his patrons at the court of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) that he eventually rose to a position of prominence as the director of the imperial workshops at the capital of Dadu, now Beijing.

No trace of Anige’s life and works has survived in Nepal, but this is not surprising given the dearth of historical records (as is the case throughout the Indian subcontinent), and the fact that artists were generally anonymous. Further, as Anige left the valley at a young age, his artistic distinction was almost entirely achieved in foreign lands....


Mary S. Lawton and Marco Musillo

[Lang Shining; Lang Shih-ning]

(b Milan, Jul 19, 1688; d Beijing, Jul 16, 1766).

Italian painter, architect, and Jesuit lay brother, active also in Portugal and China. Castiglione is one of the few Western artists to be included in the Chinese imperial collections. In the catalogue raisonné of the Imperial Collection of Paintings published in the Jiaqing reign (1796–1820) are listed forty-seven titles and fifty-six pieces by Castiglione.

Castiglione entered the Society of Jesus in 1707 after having received full training as a painter in Milan. While in Milan he studied late 17th-century painting techniques and later identified himself as a pupil of Andrea Pozzo, also a lay brother, who is best known for his decoration of the ceiling of the Jesuit church of St. Ignazio in Rome. A group of large paintings from Genoa commissioned for the refectory and church of the local Jesuit noviciate indicate that Castiglione’s style was competent if not innovative. Documentary evidence also attest commissions received in Portugal for frescoes of the life of St. Ignatius Loyola that decorated the chapel of the Jesuit Novitiate in Coimbra, Portugal, now part of the ...


Chinese, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA, 1944-1960.

Born 1921, in Beijing.

Painter, architect.

Modern school.

Chen Qikuan graduated in architecture from National Central University, Chongqing, in 1944. He then left to continue his studies in the USA, studying with Walter Gropius at Harvard. He then joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He returned to Taiwan in ...


Joan Stanley-Baker

[ Wu Daoxuan, Wu Tao-hsüan ; Wu Tao-tzu ]

(b Yangzhe [modern Yu xian, Henan Province]; fl c. ad 710–60).

Chinese painter . Later known as Wu Daoxuan, he is a legendary figure said to have depicted human beings, landscapes, architecture, Buddhist deities, demons, birds and animals. Reportedly, he derived his inspiration from wine and had a mercurial, responsive brushstyle, producing breathtaking vistas of natural scenery and figures across vast areas of temple wall.

Hearing of his extraordinary talents, the Emperor Xuanzong (Minghuang; reg 712–56) summoned Wu to his palace at Chang’an (modern Xi’an). Between 742 and 755 the emperor dispatched Wu to the Jialing River in Sichuan Province to paint the scenery. On his return, Wu stated, ‘I have made no draft, but have committed all to memory.’ He proceeded to paint the walls of the hall known as the Datong dian with 300 or more li (c. 150 km) of Jialing River scenery in a single day. Five dragons in the Inner Hall, painted by Wu on another occasion, supposedly had scales so lifelike that each time it was about to rain, they emitted misty vapours (the dragon symbolized imperial power over rain and irrigation). Contemporary accounts report that Wu covered 300–400 wall surfaces in Buddhist and Daoist temples in the two Tang-dynasty (...



Japanese, 17th century, male.

Born 1579, in Koborimura (Omi); died 12 March 1647, in Fujimi, near Kyoto.

Painter, calligrapher, poet, architect. Landscapes.

Enju was a pupil of Taniju. He founded the Enju School, which was named after him.


Chinese, 20th century, male.

Active in England.

Painter. Architectural views.

Fei Chengwu studied at National Central University, Nanjing. He went to England in 1947 and settled in London, where he made a living as a guohua painter.

Taipei, 18 April 1993: Canterbury Cathedral (1947...


Chinese, 17th century, male.


Born in Siming (Zhejiang).

Painter, draughtsman. Landscapes, architectural views, gardens, birds, flowers.

Gao Yang was the son-in-law of Zhao Bei. He painted mostly flowers, birds and rocks, but towards the end of his career also produced landscapes.

Cologne (Mus. für Ostasiatische Kunst): ...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1899, in Tottori Prefecture; died 1993.

Painter, engraver. Architectural views.

Sosaku Hanga.

First Thursday Society.

Hashimoto Okiie worked with Unichi Hiratuska and graduated from the fine arts university in Tokyo in 1924. He taught there and at the first girls’ school in Tokyo until ...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1895, in Matsue (Shimane Prefecture); died 1997.

Painter, engraver (wood). Religious subjects, nudes.

Sosaku Hanga.

The grandson of an architect and son of a carpenter, Hiratsuka graduated from Matsue Commercial School before studying Western painting with Ishii Hakutei and Umehara Ryuzaburo and woodblock printing with Igami Bonkotsu. He exhibited woodblock prints in the ...


Korean, 20th century, female.

Active in France since 1970.

Born 8 October 1943, in Seoul.

Painter. Architectural integration.

Op Art.

Li Jagyong studied in the painting section of Seoul’s Hong-ik University before going to France in 1970 on a French government scholarship, which took her first to Toulouse, and then to the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She has taught drawing in Seoul and silk-screen printing at St-Ouen, Mézel, the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris (...


LI Kai  

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1947, in Beijing.

Painter. Architectural views.

Li Kai studied at the central academy from 1963 to 1967, where he worked under the direction of Ai Xuan and Sun Weimin. After completing his four years’ military service, he returned to Beijing, where he was appointed painter in residence in the Forbidden City. His work has been exhibited in Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the USA and Europe....


Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Shanghai.

Painter. Urban landscapes, architectural views.

Li Zhongliang entered the preparatory school of the academy of fine arts in Zhejiang in 1961 and was selected to take courses in oil painting. On obtaining his diploma he left for Beijing where he became a member of the painting academy. His works depict a silent, sometimes frozen atmosphere of town and suburbs with an almost photographic realism. He took part in many national and international exhibitions. He won the silver medal of the sixth national exhibition of fine arts....



Japanese, 20th century, female.

Born 1941, in Tokyo.

Painter, draughtsman, assemblage artist.

Lumino-Kinetic Art.

Masako studied interior architecture and industrial aesthetics. She makes moving paintings out of coloured discs lit from within that generate disconcerting optical effects through gels. She also produces Poem Designs with delicately coloured encircling lines. In ...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1922.


Conceptual Art.

Matsuzawa Yutaka graduated in architecture from Waseda University, Tokyo, in 1946. In 1955 he went to the USA, where he spent two years studying the philosophy of religion at Columbia University and gave up architecture. In ...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in Saitama Prefecture.

Engraver, draughtsman. Prints (woodblock).

Mori entered the department of graphic art at the Tokyo college of arts and trades, then turned to architecture and gained his diploma in 1944. He practises wood engraving and drawing. He took part in exhibitions organised by the association of independent artists and the Japanese academy of engraving and modern art, in which he won a prize in ...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1959 and naturalised in 1981.

Born 26 October 1918, in Ibaki-kin.

Painter, pastellist. Interiors, landscapes, architectural views, still-lifes, flowers.

Murayama Shizuka was a student at the Kawabata Fine Arts Academy in Tokyo from 1934 to 1936. In the 1940s he met the painter Oka, who had a considerable influence on his work, and made friends with Fujita....



Hong Sŏn-p’yo

Korean painter. He is thought to have lived at the time of Paekche (18 bcad 668), one of the Three Kingdoms (see Korea §I 2.), and may have gone to Japan with a group of Buddhist monks and architects from Paekche whose mission was to build temples. Paekka is believed to have completed the wall paintings at Pŏphŭng Temple, Kangwŏn Province. The architectural style of this temple was followed in contemporary Japanese temples that were named after the kingdom of Paekche. Thus, assuming that Paekka was responsible for the wall paintings, he may have had a considerable influence on contemporary painting in Japan....


Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1932, in Jiangsu Province.

Painter. Animals.

Shang Wenbin graduated from the National Taiwan Normal University in 1955, where he had studied under Pu Ru, Huang Junbi and Liao Jichun. He later studied architecture in Belgium at the École Nationale Supérieure. While still abroad, he exhibited at the fifth International Exhibition at São Paulo in ...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1920.

Born 13 May 1886, in Saitama; died 1946.

Painter. Nudes, portraits, landscapes, architectural views, flowers.

Yasushi Tanaka emigrated to the USA in 1904, remaining there until 1920, when he moved to France and settled in Paris. Throughout his life his work bore the traces of his first thrilling encounter with the vastness of the American West, which stood in such contrast to the country of his childhood. And although he preferred the techniques of the French School to traditional Japanese techniques, his work is free of schoolish influence, the purity and harmony of his colours being learnt from nature directly. He exhibited at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and at the Salon d’Automne, the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon des Tuileries....


Japanese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1955, in Fukui.

Sculptor, installation artist, draughtsman.

Kimio Tsuchiya studied architecture at Nihon University before going to London, where he studied in the sculpture section of the Chelsea School of Art. Since 1983 he has lived and worked in Matsudo, Japan....