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Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Ippō; Shiin; San’unsuigetsu Shujin; Ryūkōkaku; Gyokujundō; Seishūken]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1665; d Edo, 1737).

Japanese seal-carver and calligrapher. The Ikenaga were a powerful provincial family in Odawara, Sagami Province (now Kanagawa Prefect.). In 1593 they moved to Edo, where they ran a pharmacy as well as being the head family of their residential district. Dōun was adopted into the Ikenaga family and became its fifth-generation head. He enjoyed learning from an early age and studied with Sakakibara Kōshū (1655–1706); his close friends included such seal-carvers as Hosoi Kōtaku (also a distinguished calligrapher) and Imai Junsai (1658–1718). His seal album Ittō banshō (‘One blade, a myriad images’; 1713; Japan, N. Mizuta priv. col.; see Japan, §XVII, 20) was the forerunner of artistic seal albums in Japan. It is in four volumes, the first two showing 328 seals carved in different styles, based on the Senjimon (the ‘Thousand-character’ Chinese classic); the third is a collection of the impressions of 170 private seals in Dōun’s own collection. Prefaces from major scholars and Koreans and Chinese resident in Japan, as well as Dōun’s own prefatory remarks, are bound together in another volume. Only 100 copies of the ...


Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....


Stephen Addiss

(b Kyoto, 1658; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1735).

Japanese calligrapher and seal-carver. He was probably the most important Japanese master of Karayō (Chinese-style) calligraphy in the early 18th century. The son of a physician from Totomi Province (now in Shizuoka Prefect.), Kōtaku went to Edo as a youth to receive a Confucian education. He studied the Chinese classics with Sakai Zenken (d 1703) and also learnt a number of cultivated arts and skills such as poetry, painting, seal-carving, mathematics, astronomy and munitions. He also studied Karayō calligraphy with Kitajima Setsuzan (1636–97), who popularized in Japan the styles of Chinese calligraphers such as Wen Zhengming (see Wen family, §1) of the Yuan (1279–1368) and Ming (1368–1644) periods. Immigrant Ōbaku (Chin. Huangbo) Zen monks had brought this literati style, which became admired and practised partly because of the Tokugawa government’s strong support for Chinese scholarly and cultural attainments (see...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Teng Shih-ju; Wanbai]

(b Huaining, Anhui Province, 1743; d 1805).

Chinese calligrapher and seal-carver. He is generally recognized as the founder of the stele studies (beixue) movement, which sought inspiration from the stelae of the Northern Wei period (ad 386–534; see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (vii), (a)). He is also considered the founder of the so-called Deng school of seal-carving. Deng spent most of his adult life as the guest of wealthy patrons, and supported himself at other times by selling his calligraphy and seals. His earliest and longest sojourn was with Mei Liu (zi Shijun) and lasted for eight years. Mei had an extensive collection of original bronze and stone objects and rubbings of stelae from the Qin to the Three Kingdoms period (221 bcad 280). Deng familiarized himself with these through painstaking imitation: he is said to have devoted six months to copying the earliest dictionary, the Dictionary of Words and Phrases...