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Article

Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...

Article

Japanese, 18th–19th century, male.

Born 1748, in Sukagawa; died 1822.

Painter, engraver (etching). Landscapes.

Yoga School.

Denzen Aodo belonged to the Yoga School, but studied Nanga painting under Gessen. He later became interested in Western painting. Aodo was a landscape painter who served Lord Matsudaira....

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Born 1744; died 1793.

Painter.

Ba Weizu was a flower and landscape painter from Xiexian, Anhui province.

Article

Baigai  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Osaka; died 1804.

Painter. Landscapes.

Nanga School.

Baigai was a man of letters and a member of the Nanga School (scholar painters) who grouped together at the end of the 18th century in Osaka. Like other artists of his generation, Baigai accepted the patronage of Masuyama Sessai, Lord of Ise. He was mainly a painter of landscapes but also published memoirs and reflections on art....

Article

Baiitsu  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1783, in Nagoya; died 1856.

Painter, draughtsman. Landscapes, birds, flowers.

Nanga School.

Baiitsu was a painter of the Nanga (literati) School. He spent his years of apprenticeship with the painter Chikuto (1776-1853), with whom he became close friends and together with whom he is today considered to be one of the best representatives of the Nanga School. He studied the Chinese ink painting techniques of the Ming and Qing. He arrived in Kyoto around ...

Article

Chinese, probably Manchu, 17th – 18th century, male.

Active during the reign of the Qing Emperor Kangxi (1662-1722).

Painter.

Article

Bao Kai  

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active in Xiexian (Anhui)c.1750.

Painter.

Bao Kai was a flower and landscape painter and a disciple of Yun Shouping. He lived in Yangzhou, in Jiangsu province.

Article

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1770, in Nagoya; died 27 January 1857.

Painter.

After studying the Chinese masters of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, Go Bautsu took lessons from Chikuto (1776-1853) whom he followed to Kyoto. He painted landscapes, flowers and the heads of animals....

Article

Bi Han  

Chinese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1732; died 1807.

Painter. Landscapes.

Bi Han was a landscape painter from Yanghu, Jiangsu province. He was a disciple of Yun Shouping.

New York, 26 Nov 1990: Landscape Album (ten leaves, of which eight are in ink on paper and two are in ink and colour on paper...

Article

Bi Long  

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active during the reign of the Qing Emperor Qianlong (1736-1796).

Born in Taicang (Jiangsu).

Painter.

Bi Long was a painter of bamboos and landscapes and a disciple of Cao Zhibo. He was also a poet and a famous collector of calligraphy and paintings....

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active 1725-1747.

Born 1684, in Huaian (Jiangsu); died 1752.

Painter. Flowers, birds.

Bian Shoumin mainly specialised in wild geese and practised the pomo (broken ink) technique. Although sometimes included as one of the Eight Eccentrics of Yangshou group of painters, he is less well known than several of his contemporaries....

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...

Article

Bokusen  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Nagoya.

Born 1736; died 1824.

Painter.

Ukiyo-e School.

Bokusen was a pupil of Utamaro and Hokusai.

Article

Bosai  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Edo (now Tokyo).

Born 1752, in Edo (now Tokyo); died 1826.

Painter. Landscapes.

Bosai was a devotee of Confucius and belonged to the ink painting school.

New York, 23 Oct 1991: Mountain Lake (ink and diluted colour on silk...

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...

Article

Buncho  

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Active in Edo (now Tokyo) 1765-1780.

Born 1725; died 1794.

Print artist, painter. Portraits.

Buncho was a disciple of Ishikawa Yukimoto and he is undoubtedly the same artist sometimes referred to as a pupil of Ishigawa Kogen who belonged to the Ukiyo-e School. He studied at the Kano School. Like all of the artists of the Meiwa period (...

Article

Buncho  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1763, in Edo (now Tokyo); died 1840.

Painter.

Nanga School.

With Buncho the Nanga (literati) School became established in Edo (present-day Tokyo) at the end of the 18th century. The son of a poet, he began to paint at a young age under the guidance of his master Matsudaira Sadanobu, who noticed his precocious talent. He studied the styles of several schools (Kano, Tosa, Nagasaki, Maruyama-Shijo), then Chinese works of the Ming and Qing dynasties, of which he made very careful copies. He went to great lengths to synthesise all these various elements, and developed a composite style also influenced by the rules of Western art. He illustrated books and painted various subjects (birds, flowers, animals, human figures), but he was at his best when painting landscapes; a series of his realist landscapes was of such scientific accuracy that it was used in the defence of the bay of Edo (present-day Tokyo). He was very well known during his lifetime and the only contemporary who was able to rival his versatility and prolificacy was Hokusai (...

Article

Frank L. Chance

[Tani Masayasu; Shazanrō]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], Oct 15, 1763; d Edo, Jan 6, 1841).

Japanese painter and book designer (see fig.). He was the son of the poet Tani Rokkoku (1729–1809). As his father and grandfather were retainers of the Tayasu family, descended from the eighth Tokugawa shogun, Bunchō inherited samurai status and received a small stipend to meet the responsibilities this entailed. In his youth he began studying the painting techniques of the Kanō school under Katō Bunrei (1706–82). After Bunrei’s death Bunchō worked with masters of other schools, such as the literati painter Kitayama Kangan (1767–1801), and developed a wide stylistic range that included many Chinese, Japanese, and even European idioms. He is best known for his crisp landscapes in the literati style (Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)), especially those produced in the Kansei era (1789–1801) inspired by such Chinese masters of the Ming period (...

Article

Buson  

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Born 1716, in the village of Kema, near Osaka; died 1783.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist. Landscapes, animals. Screens.

Nanga School.

Buson was one of the creators of the Nanga (literati) School. It was only at the beginning of the 17th century that the ...

Article

Hollis Goodall-Cristante

[ Buson ; Sha’in ; Shunsei ; Taniguchi Noriyuki ; Yahantei ]

(b Kema, Osaka, 1716; d Kyoto, 1783).

Japanese painter and poet . He was a member of the second generation of literati painters in Japan. He and his contemporary Ike Taiga ( see Ike family §(1) ) absorbed and transformed the Chinese scholar–amateur style into a Japanese idiom ( Nanga or Bunjinga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d) ).

Buson left Kema in 1735 for Edo (now Tokyo), where he studied haiku poetry under Uchida Senzan and, from 1737, under Hayano Hajin (1677–1742). His earliest known work was an illustration of a woman reading a letter (1737; see Suzuki, p. 157) for a haiku anthology. When Hajin died, Buson left Edo and for the next ten years he lived and travelled in the northern Shimosa–Kantō provinces (now Ibaraki Prefect.), concentrating on the study of haiku but supporting himself by painting. His works of this period were experimental, drawing both on the style of the Kanō school...