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Article

Yi Am  

Henrik H. Sørensen

Korean painter. A descendant of the royal Yi family—founders of the Chosŏn dynasty—in the line of King Sejong and mentioned in the Injong shillok (‘Veritable records of King Injong’), he was considered one of the most important Academy painters of his day. He was renowned for his rendering of dogs and cats and of flowers and birds, placed usually in highly formalized garden settings. His paintings exude an innocent and peaceful atmosphere. In his work he combined the ‘outline’ style with the ‘boneless’. His paintings bear some resemblance to the type of animal paintings produced at Huizong’s Northern Song Academy in the 12th century in China, although his subjects are more dynamic, if less realistic....

Article

Jurgis Elisonas

Japanese castle in Azuchi-chō, Shiga Prefecture. It was the prototype of the sumptuous residential castles of the Momoyama period (1568–1600) of Japanese history (often called the Azuchi–Momoyama period, taking its name from the castle). This palatial citadel was built as the visible sign of the new order imposed on Japan by ...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

Article

Wu Bin  

Dawn Ho Delbanco

Chinese painter . One of the most talented of a small group of mid-17th-century professional artists active in Nanjing and Beijing, whose paintings of landscapes and figural compositions presented an alternative mode to the prevailing style of the amateur scholar-painters. Under the Wanli emperor (reg...

Article

Biombo  

Sofía Sanabrais

Name used in Mexico and throughout Latin America for a folding screen. The word biombo is a transliteration of the Japanese word for folding screen—byōbu—an acknowledgement of its place of origin. The Japanese byōbu has long been a quintessential example of Japanese art and was a common diplomatic gift to foreign courts in the early modern period (...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ...

Article

Hong Sŏn-p’yo

Korean painter of the early Chosŏn period (1392–1910). He was born into the aristocracy. After passing the civil service examinations in 1519, he was elected to the Bureau of Painting but in the same year was implicated in a purge of reform-minded scholars and was sent into exile for 20 years. Exile, however, allowed him to devote his time to calligraphy, painting and poetry. Sin was renowned for his ‘eight parts’ (Chin. ...

Article

Chinese, 16th century, male.

Born 1483, in Jiang-su (Jiangsu); died 1544.

Painter.

Paris (Mus. National des Arts asiatiques-Guimet): Bird on a Rock (signed Daofu and dated 1544, ink on paper, with a song written by Wen Zhengming in 1548)

Article

Chinese, 16th century, male.

Activec.1550-1554.

Born in Suzhou (Jiangsu).

Painter.

Cheng Gua was known for painting flowers in the style of Xu Chongsi and landscapes in the style of Huang Gongwang.

Beijing: Pines Bamboos and Chrysanthe­mums near River (signed and dated 1550);...

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1539, in Jiaxing (Zhejiang); died after 1625.

Painter. Animals, flowers.

Chicago (AI): Magnolias, Roses, Plum Blossom and Fruit Trees (signed and dated 1625)

Tianjin: Winter Birds on Plum Tree and Bamboo (colophon dated 1607, ink on paper, hanging scroll...

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1558, in Huating (Jiangsu); died 1639.

Painter, calligrapher. Landscapes, flowers.

Chen Jiru was a prolific writer and poet. As a painter he is known for his landscapes, plum blossom and bamboo. Rather than work as an official he devoted himself to the arts, living a life of seclusion in the mountains of Eastern China....

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends....

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born in Changshu (Jiangsu).

Painter. Landscapes.

Chen Min was a pupil of the painter Cheng Jiasui (1565-1643). He specialised in painting plum trees.

Article

Chinese, 16th century, male.

Born 1483, in Changzhou (Jiangsu); died 1544.

Painter, calligrapher. Landscapes, animals, flowers.

Chen Shun was a celebrated painter of flowers. He was a disciple and friend of Wen Zhengming and was also influenced by Shen Zhou.

Chicago (AI): Pavilion of the Eight Poems...

Article

Chen Yi  

Chinese, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born 1469, in Ningpo (Zhejiang); died 1583.

Painter.

Chen Yi was a scholar, calligrapher and landscape artist who lived in Nanjing. He was an admirer of Su Dongpo and a friend of Wen Zhengming.

Article

Chinese, 16th century, male.

Activec.1500.

Born in Pucheng (Fujian).

Painter.

Chen Zihe was originally a sculptor, but afterwards devoted himself to painting in the style of Lin Liang and Wu Wei.

London (British Mus.): Rocks and Chrysan­themums (with the seal of the artist...

Article

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

Chinese painter . Zhou Chen was a pre-eminent professional painter of the Ming period (1368–1644), alongside masters such as Dai Jin. Zhou learnt a conservative style based on Southern Song period (1127–1279) landscape painting from his teacher Chen Xian (1405–96), who specialized in the ‘plain-line’ (...

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1565, in Xiuning (Anhui); died 1643.

Painter. Landscapes.

Cheng Jiasui was a poet and landscape artist who worked in the styles of the great masters of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368). He lived in Jiading (Jiangsu).

Cologne (Mus. für Ostasiatische Kunst): ...

Article

Japanese, 16th century, male.

Activec.1500.

Painter.

Chiden Tan An was a suiboku (ink painting) artist of the Muromachi period and a priest in the Shokokuji temple in Kyoto. He was probably a pupil of Soami.

Article

Burglind Jungmann

Korean painter. The son of a scholar–official, he passed the chinsa (literary licentiate) examination in 1576 and took up a civil service career. He was famous for painting grapes and is frequently equated with the bamboo painter Yi Chŏng (i) and the plum-blossom painter Ŏ Mong-nyŏng. In Korea, unlike in China, there is a long-standing tradition of painting grapes that reaches back possibly as far as the Koryŏ period (...