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Article

Ken Brown and Karen L. Brock

Shogunal dynasty that ruled Japan during the Muromachi period (1333–1568). According to the anonymous Taiheiki (‘Chronicle of great peace’; ?1370–71), Ashikaga, the name of a town in Shimotsuke Province (now Tochigi Prefect.), was taken as a family name by a branch of the military Minamoto family. The Ashikaga came to power when the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji (1305–58), overthrew the Hōjō regents in Kamakura and installed the ambitious Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) in Kyoto. When GoDaigo refused to name Takauji as shogun, the latter deposed him and replaced him by his own candidate. GoDaigo fled to Yoshino (Nara Prefect.), where he set up a rival court. The schism continued during the early Muromachi period, which is also known as the Nanbokuchō (‘Northern and Southern Courts’; 1336–92) period. Takauji and his son, the second shogun Ashikaga Yoshiakira (1330–67), paid respect to the old aristocracy in Kyoto, but the third shogun, ...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Chinese, 15th century, male.

Active during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644).

Painter. Flowers, fruit, birds.

Bian Chushan was the second son of the painter Bian Wenjin.

Article

Chinese, 15th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 15th century.

Born in Shaxian (Fujian).

Painter.

Bian Wenjin was a painter at the court of two successive emperors at the beginning of the 15th century: Yongle (1403-1424) and Xuande (1426-1435). His work is a good illustration of the weaknesses of court painting during the Ming dynasty (...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Bokkei  

Japanese, 15th century, male.

Active in the middle of the 15th century.

Died 1473.

Painter.

Bokkei was inspired by the work of Shubun (active 1425-1450) but developed a powerful style of his own under the spiritual influence of the Zen monk Ikkyu Sojun. His own successor Jasoku would found the Soga School, which is characterised by very sharp pen strokes....

Article

Masatomo Kawai

[Motsurin]

(d 1492).

Japanese painter and Zen monk. He was a close disciple of Ikkyū Sōjun, the Zen abbot of Daitokuji in Kyoto. After Ikkyū’s death, Bokusai compiled his master’s biography, and he became first-generation head of Shūon’an in Takigi (Tanabe, Kyoto Prefect.), the mortuary temple Ikkyū built for himself. In 1491 Bokusai built ...

Article

Bokusho  

Japanese, 15th century, male.

Born 1394; died 1469.

Painter.

Bokusho was a Zen priest and a contemporary of Sesshu. He lived in the Nanzenji temple in Kyoto and painted the ‘Bodhidharma’ of Jisho-in Temple, Kyoto, which is now registered as a National Treasure. He belonged to the ink painting school of the Muromachi period....

Article

Masatomo Kawai

[Gyokukei]

(1348–c. 1420).

Japanese Zen monk, scholar, calligrapher, poet and painter. He began his training as a monk at Nanzenji in Kyoto, under Shun’oku Myōha, the nephew and disciple of Musō Sōseki, one of the leading Zen prelates of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). His other teachers included the Zen recluse Shakushitsu Genkō and Gidō Shūshin, under whom he studied literature. A trusted adviser of the fourth Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimochi, Gyokuen was appointed to the prestigious abbacies of Kenninji (c. 1409) and Nanzenji (1413) in Kyoto. His true wish, however, was to retire from the world, and in 1420, after a disagreement with Yoshimochi, he left Kyoto to lead a life of seclusion. An accomplished poet, Gyokuen also brushed colophons on many shigajiku (poem-painting scrolls) of the period, including Josetsu’s Catching a Catfish with a Gourd (c. 1413–15; Kyoto, Myōshinji). His own painting, which shows the influence of the mid-14th-century Chinese priest–painter Xue Chuang and of Tesshū Tokusai, strongly reflects his literary disposition. He is especially well known for his subdued monochrome ink paintings of orchids (emblems of moral virtue), 30 of which have survived (...

Article

Bunsei  

Japanese, 15th century, male.

Active in the middle of the 15th century.

Painter.

Bunsei was a Zen priest who lived in the Daitokuji temple in Kyoto. He belonged to the ink painting school of the Muromachi period.

Article

Bunsei  

Ken Brown

[Kor. Mun-ch’ŏng]

(fl c. 1450–60).

Zen monk and ink painter, active in Japan. He may have come to Japan from Korea, where his work is also known: a couple of paintings in the National Museum of Korea in Seoul bear his seal. Moreover, some of his extant landscapes in Japan were done in Korean style. His seal, which appears on only a handful of paintings, is similar to that used by Josetsu, with whom until the mid-20th century he was sometimes confused. Bunsei is thought to have worked at Daitokuji in Kyoto.

Bunsei’s extant works suggest the influence of Tenshō Shūbun. They show a range of subjects, including several landscapes (Osaka, Masaki A. Mus.; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.), a portrait of Abbot Yosō of Daitokuji (1452) and the popular ecumenical subject Three Laughers of the Tiger Ravine (Powers priv. col.). Bunsei’s masterpiece is a painting of the famous Buddhist Layman Yuima (1457...

Article

Chen Lu  

Chinese, 15th century, male.

Activec.1440.

Born in Kuaiji (Zhejiang).

Painter. Flowers.

Chen Lu made a name for himself in painting bamboo and plum blossom.

Berlin: Plum Blossoms under Full Moon (signed)

Article

Chinese, 15th century, male.

Active probably active in the Chenghua period (1465-1487).

Painter.

Ming dynasty.

Article

Chinese, 15th century, male.

Active in the Ming dynasty (1368-1644).

Born 1428, in Xinhui (Guangdong); died 1500.

Painter, calligrapher. Flowers.

Chen Xianzhang was a scholar and philosopher of the Hanlin Academy. He painted flowers and plum trees. He invented a new instrument for practicing calligraphy....

Article

Chen Yi  

Chinese, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born 1469, in Ningpo (Zhejiang); died 1583.

Painter.

Chen Yi was a scholar, calligrapher and landscape artist who lived in Nanjing. He was an admirer of Su Dongpo and a friend of Wen Zhengming.

Article

Chengyi  

Chinese, 15th century, male.

Active in Zhejiang during the Yongle period(1403-1424).

Painter.

Ming Dynasty.

Article

Junghee Lee

[Yi]

Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. T’aejo, for example, built Sŏgwang Temple in north-eastern Korea, the area of his origin; King Sejo (reg 1455–68) built the marble pagoda of the Wŏngak Temple in Seoul in 1466; and the Dowager Queen Munjŏng patronized painters (see Korea, §IV, 2, (i), (d)) and supported temple constructions during the reign of King Myŏngjong (reg 1545–67).

With the establishment of the capital at Hanyang (now Seoul), T’aejo built the Kyŏngbok and Ch’angdŏk palaces and city walls in ...

Article

Japanese, 15th century, male.

Active from 1444 to 1457(?).

Born 1444; died 1457.

Painter.

Chuan was a Zen monk-painter who lived in the Kencho-ji temple, Kamakura. He is thought to have been the teacher of the monk-painter Shokei, one of the great figures of ink painting in the Muromachi period. Consequently, it has been inferred that he was active in the mid-15th century. A number of his works survive, including a portrait of Gaofeng Yuanmiao in the Freer Gallery, Washington, DC....

Article

Dai Jin  

Chinese, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1388, in Qiantang (Zhejiang); died 1462.

Painter. Genre scenes, landscapes with figures.

Zhe School.

Dai Jin was a representative of the academic style of landscape painting during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). This movement, known as the Zhe School, of which Dai Jin was the principal adherent, was rejected by scholar critics whose authority would soon become dominant with Dong Qichang (...

Article

Daohong  

Chinese, 15th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 15th century.

Painter.

Daohong was a monk-painter who is known only from a scroll in the Freer Gallery, which seems to have been copied in the style of the original by Wu Sicang. The inscription on the scroll mentions the name Daohong and the date ...