You are looking at  1-20 of 247 results  for:

  • East Asian Art x
  • 1300–1400 x
Clear All

Article

[ho Kunhae ; Koun ; Ch’oja ; Haengch’on ]

(b 1297; d 1364).

Korean calligrapher. He is considered one of the last great calligraphers of the Koryŏ period (918–1392). Born into a noble family, at the age of 17 he passed his first examinations and entered the Confucian academy in Kaesŏng, where he eventually rose to prominence in the central administration. Information on his life, and in particular on his career as an official, can be found in the Koryŏsa, the history of the Koryŏ dynasty.

Yi was directly influenced by the calligraphic works of Zhao Mengfu, who at that time was considered among the greatest painters and calligraphers of Yuan-period (1279–1368) China, with which Korea had close political and cultural contacts. However, only one of Yi’s calligraphic works survives, and that only as a rubbing (Seoul, priv. col.) from a stele inscription. This is the celebrated Munsu ṣa changgyŏng pi (‘Inscription for the sūtra repository of Munsu Temple’; see Kim, Choi and Im, pl. 118), a piece written to commemorate the building of a new library for sacred texts (Skt ...

Article

Arihisa  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures.

Kose no Arihisa was the third son of Kose no Ariyuku and held important positions at court. His works include the portrait of two Mandarins and an image of Benzaiten, Goddess of Fortune. He worked at the temple of Kyoogokokuji in Kyoto between ...

Article

Ariie  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Activec.1321-1324.

Painter.

According to Brinkley, Ariie lived in Genko and was the son of Kose Mitsuyasu of Kyoto. His works include two handscrolls Gyogi-engi (Story of the Korean priest Gyogi) and Jizo-engi (Miracle of the Bodhisattva Jizo), as well as sixteen hanging scrolls of ...

Article

Ariyasu  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Active in Kyotoc.1326-1334.

Painter.

Kose School.

Ariyasu was the second son of Kose no Mitsuyasu.

Article

Ken Brown and Karen L. Brock

Shogunal dynasty that ruled Japan during the Muromachi period (1333–1568). According to the anonymous Taiheiki (‘Chronicle of great peace’; ?1370–71), Ashikaga, the name of a town in Shimotsuke Province (now Tochigi Prefect.), was taken as a family name by a branch of the military Minamoto family. The Ashikaga came to power when the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji (1305–58), overthrew the Hōjō regents in Kamakura and installed the ambitious Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) in Kyoto. When GoDaigo refused to name Takauji as shogun, the latter deposed him and replaced him by his own candidate. GoDaigo fled to Yoshino (Nara Prefect.), where he set up a rival court. The schism continued during the early Muromachi period, which is also known as the Nanbokuchō (‘Northern and Southern Courts’; 1336–92) period. Takauji and his son, the second shogun Ashikaga Yoshiakira (1330–67), paid respect to the old aristocracy in Kyoto, but the third shogun, ...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active in Sichuan Provincec.1356.

Painter. Landscapes, flowers, animals.

Bencheng was a priest. Among his known works is Cabbage, Sparrows and Insects, preserved in Japan and signed and dated 1356.

Article

Bian Wu  

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active in the first half of the 14th century.

Born in Beijing.

Painter. Animals, flowers.

Bian Wu painted many birds, bamboos, and rocks.

Berlin: Birds on a Branch above a Rocky Promontory (painting in the shape of a fan, signed...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active in the first half of the 14th century, during the Yuan dynasty.

Painter.

Bo Ziting was a Buddhist painter from Jiading (Jiangsu) who painted rocks and flowers.

Article

Masatomo Kawai

[Gyokukei]

(1348–c. 1420).

Japanese Zen monk, scholar, calligrapher, poet and painter. He began his training as a monk at Nanzenji in Kyoto, under Shun’oku Myōha, the nephew and disciple of Musō Sōseki, one of the leading Zen prelates of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). His other teachers included the Zen recluse Shakushitsu Genkō and Gidō Shūshin, under whom he studied literature. A trusted adviser of the fourth Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimochi, Gyokuen was appointed to the prestigious abbacies of Kenninji (c. 1409) and Nanzenji (1413) in Kyoto. His true wish, however, was to retire from the world, and in 1420, after a disagreement with Yoshimochi, he left Kyoto to lead a life of seclusion. An accomplished poet, Gyokuen also brushed colophons on many shigajiku (poem-painting scrolls) of the period, including Josetsu’s Catching a Catfish with a Gourd (c. 1413–15; Kyoto, Myōshinji). His own painting, which shows the influence of the mid-14th-century Chinese priest–painter Xue Chuang and of Tesshū Tokusai, strongly reflects his literary disposition. He is especially well known for his subdued monochrome ink paintings of orchids (emblems of moral virtue), 30 of which have survived (...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Activec.1308during the Yuan dynasty.

Painter.

Boyan Buhua was a Mongol noble who distinguished himself as a soldier. He painted dragons and landscapes.

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active during the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368).

Painter.

Tokyo (National Mus.): Arhat Seated on a Rock (ink and light colours on silk)

Article

Chinese, 14th century, female.

Activec.1379.

Born in Qiantang (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Cao Miaoqing specialised in painting flowers but was also a poetess and calligrapher. She lived in Hangzhou during the reign of Emperor Hongwu (1368-1399).

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Born 1271, in Huating (Jiangsu); died 1355.

Painter. Landscapes.

Yuan dynasty.

Cao Zhibai was a teacher at a government college during the reign of the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan (1264-1295). He then withdrew in order to devote himself to his Taoist studies and painting. He was a landscape artist and modelled his work on Guo Xi and Li Cheng....

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Born in Dongping (Shandong).

Painter. Landscapes.

Article

Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Chungsa ; ho Ikjae , Siljae , Yok’ong ]

(b Kyŏngju, 1287; d 1367).

Korean painter, connoisseur, scholar and statesman. In 1301 he won first place in the state examination. Thereafter his official career took him steadily to the post, in 1356, of Chief Minister of the Chancellery for State Affairs. Active in the Koryŏ period (918–1392), he served five sovereigns during his years in office and made many trips to Yanjing and to Dadu, the capital of the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368), on behalf of his country. After King Ch’ungsŏn (reg 1308–13), who spent more time in Yanjing than in the Koryŏ capital of Songdo, had built the Man’gwŏndang (Hall of Ten Thousand Volumes) in Yanjing, Yi Che-hyŏn was called to China in 1314. There he met many eminent Chinese scholars, among them the painters Zhao Mengfu ( see Zhao family §(1) ) and Zhu Derun . Yi Che-hyŏn is credited with having brought Zhao Mengfu’s calligraphic style to Korea, where it remained popular until the 16th century (...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Activec.1320.

Born in Hangzhou (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Seoul (Nat. Mus. of Korea): Portrait of the Korean Scholar Li Qixian (dated 1319)

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active in Hangzhou (Zhejiang)c.1260-1320.

Painter.

Although Chen Lin was the son of an official painter at the Hangzhou Academy, he was not one of the literati painters. He was a friend of the painter Zhao Mengfu, and painted birds and flowers, landscapes and figures....

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Born in Haiyan (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Yuan dynasty.

Chen Lishan was a censor in Zhejiang province during the Zhizheng period (1341-1367). He was famous for his paintings of plum blossom.

Beijing: Light Plum Blossom (signed and dated 1351)