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Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in China and the United States.

Born 18 May 1957, in Beijing, China.

Artist, architect, designer, curator, publisher, activist.

After spending most of his childhood in the provinces of China, Ai Weiwei moved to Beijing in the mid-1970s to attend the city’s film academy. While there, he co-founded the first of the loose collectives of pro-democracy artists to emerge in the city, known as the Stars Group (...

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

[Ch’en Chi-ju; zi Zhongshun; hao Meigong, Meidaoren, Migong]

(b Huating, Jiangsu Province [modern Songjiang, Shanghai Municipality], 16 Dec 1558; d 19 Oct 1639). Chinese editor, writer, calligrapher and painter. He exemplified the literati ideal of the accomplished gentleman–scholar who rejected the sordid world of political involvement and devoted himself to a life of literary, artistic and philosophical pursuit. At the age of 28, having passed the prefectural examination, the first important step leading to a career in government office, Chen renounced official life in a dramatic gesture, by burning his Confucian cap and gown. Thereafter he lived at country retreats at Kunshan and then Mt She, near Huating in Jiangsu Province: entertaining guests; writing and editing; composing the poems, prefaces, epitaphs and biographies for which he was in constant demand; and travelling to places of scenic beauty in the company of friends.

Chen followed the lead of his close friend Dong Qichang, the foremost painter, calligrapher and connoisseur of the late Ming period (...

Article

Chinese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, still-lifes, landscapes.

or Zheng Zaidong

Cheng Tsai-tung trained in journalism before switching to painting. While technically fairly rudimentary, his work proceeds from a synthetic vision that he renders in large flat areas.

1984–1985, Taiwan New Painting...

Article

Chinese, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1954, in Xinzhu, Taiwan.

Painter. Genre scenes, interiors with figures.

Fang Xun graduated in 1978 from the journalism department of the Chinese Culture University, Taipei, and then started her artistic career. In 1986, she began to take part in exhibitions and in ...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1890, 1891 or 1893, in Wuxi (Zhejiang Province); died 1974 or 1977.

Painter. Local scenes, landscapes.

A traditional scholar and painter, He Tianjian taught in various art schools. He also edited two art journals Guohua yuekan (Chinese Painting), a monthly review, and ...

Article

LI Qun  

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Shanxi.

Wood engraver, illustrator.

Li Qun studied at the national art academy in Zhejiang (Hangzhou) and taught at the Lu Xun academy from 1940 to 1945. He founded the Hang Zhou journal The People’s Illustrated, was vice president of the Shanxi Literary Association and the China Woodcut Association, and then became honorary president of the China Etching Association....

Article

Juliann Wolfgram

[Baiō]

(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Nagoya.

Engraver.

Nomura Hiroshi graduated from the imperial fine arts college and worked as a journalist until 1962. He became a member of the Japanese Engravers’ Association. His work was exhibited regularly at the International Print Biennale in Tokyo from ...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1914, in Jixian (Henan).

Painter. Landscapes.

Qin Lingyun studied in the department of painting in the National Institute of Arts in Beijing. He was an editor at a Beijing publishing house for popular fine art editions, after which he became a traditional painter....

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

[Bussai; Dokusō; Gakusen; Hanbutsu koji; Kyūsui Gyojin; Mandarakyo]

(b Kyoto, 1738; d Osaka, 1797).

Japanese seal-carver, poet and editor. Afflicted by poverty in Kyoto, he moved to Osaka, where he studied Confucianism and Chinese literature with Katayama Hokkai (1723–90) and Hosoai Hansai (1727–1803) and joined the society of Chinese poetry, the Kontonshisha. He learnt seal-carving from Kō Fuyō and was so successful in absorbing the characteristics of the Archaic school that he was known as ‘Fuyō’s shadow’. Together with Maegawa Kyoshū and Katsu Shikin, he was an important advocate of the Archaic school in the Naniwa (now Osaka) area (see Japan §XVII 20.).

Albums of seals he carved include the Rekiken sanbō inpu, Dokusōan in’in and the Gakusen in’in. Shii also researched the background to seal scholarship and wrote the works Insekikō (‘Thoughts on borrowed seals’) and Ingosan (‘Outline of seal terms’). The Insekikō, published posthumously in 1802, is a catalogue raisonné of Japanese and Chinese seal albums introduced to Japan at that time. It also assesses the state and level of seal scholarship. No such catalogue had hitherto been compiled, even in China, and it was highly praised. The ...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Born 1310; died 1381.

Art lover, scholar, art critic.

Song Lian was a historian, man of letters and art critic. He is best known as the editor of the History of the Yuan Dynasty. He also published an essay entitled Origin of Painting...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1908, in Shandong.

Painter.

Xu Jiemin belonged to the traditional literati painting school as well as to the modern school and taught in the province of Guangxi for sixteen years. He was the first editor of two well-known reviews of the arts, ...

Article

Mayching Kao

[ Yang Yingfeng ; Yang Yuyu ]

(b Yilan, Taiwan, Dec 4, 1926).

Chinese sculptor and painter . He studied architecture, sculpture and painting in Tokyo, Beijing, Taipei and Rome. In a long and productive career as art editor, teacher and artist, Yang won critical acclaim as the foremost sculptor and landscape architect in Taiwan, receiving numerous prestigious commissions for sculpture and environmental design in Taiwan and abroad. Yang’s artistic development reflected the crystallization of his personal experience in the fast-changing modern world and his study of Chinese and Western art. His art evolved from realism in the 1950s to semi-abstraction in the early 1960s, when modern art movements emerged in Taiwan. Deeply influenced by Chinese philosophical concepts of the harmony of man and nature as well as the unity of life and art, Yang turned to abstraction in the late 1960s. His monumental works in cast bronze and stainless steel attempted to capture the life force of nature and the changing relationship of solids and voids within art and its environment....

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Chengdu (Sichuan); died 1964.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Scenes with figures.

Zhang Yangxi was a woodcut engraver of the Realist school. He studied at Chengdu and in 1945 was appointed art editor of the Chengdu Ziyu Huabao, an illustrated weekly specialising in social satire. He was appointed chairman of the print-making department of the Central Academy of Fine Art (CAFA) in ...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1926.

Painter. Landscapes.

From 1954, Zhu Yulien worked as a editor for the Daily Press and World Knowledge. He went on to work for the People’s Daily.

Peintres traditionnels de la République populaire de Chine, exhibition catalogue, Gal. Daniel Malingue, Paris, 1980....