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Article

Agano  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese region in Buzen Province (now part of Fukuoka Prefect.), northern Kyushu, where stonewares were manufactured at various sites from c. 1600 (see also Japan, §IX, 3, (i), (d)).

The first potter to make Agano ware was the Korean master Chon’gye (Jap. Sonkai; 1576–1654). Deported to Kyushu during one of the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, he entered the service of Hosokawa Tadaoki (1563–1645), the newly appointed governor of Buzen. On the completion of Tadaoki’s fortress at Kokura (now Kitakyushu), Chon’gye built the Saienba kiln, probably within the castle precincts. A site thought to be Saienba was found beneath Myōkōji, the temple that replaced the castle in 1679, and excavations took place between 1979 and 1983. Sherds of both tea ceremony and everyday wares have been found there; they have transparent glazes made with a wood-ash flux, opaque glazes made with a straw-ash flux or brown-black glazes pigmented with iron oxide. Inscriptions on surviving pieces and entries in contemporary diaries indicate that these early products were also called Buzen or Kokura ware. After a few years the Saienba kiln closed, and ...

Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (1868–1912) porcelain was produced throughout the country. The need to distinguish it from other porcelain wares led to the use of the name Arita (Arita yaki). As a result, the names Imari and Arita wares were used interchangeably. In the West, Arita porcelain was known by several names, including Imari, Amari, Old Japan and Kakiemon (see Japan, §IX, 3, (iii)).

Porcelain production is said to have begun in Japan in 1616, when the Korean ceramicist Ri Sanpei [Jap. Kanagae Sanbei] (1579–1655), who had been brought to Japan after Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of Korea (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Banko  

Andrew Maske and Gordon Campbell

Japanese centre of pottery and porcelain production. Kilns were established in the mid-18th century in Ise Province (Mie Prefecture); production eventually spread as far as Edo (now Tokyo); ‘banko’, which was imprinted on the seals, means ‘eternal’. In the 18th century the area produced raku ware and Satsuma types and decorative patterns taken from Ming Dynasty red and green porcelain. The rise in the use of steeped tea (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Western name for Chinese porcelain of the Kangxi period (1662–1722) imported by Dutch merchants through the Dutch trading station at Batavia (now Jakarta). This porcelain, which was brown-glazed, decorated with panels and usually painted in blue, was imitated by European manufacturers, notably at Meissen and Leeds, and these imitations are known as Batavia ware....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1810; d 1864).

English painter of pottery and porcelain and the proprietor of a China decorating firm. In 1834 he began to work for Copeland, and during this period he may have developed the formula for Parian ware. He is given credit for its invention in the catalogue of the Great Exhibition of ...

Article

Hélène Guéné-Loyer

(b Mer, nr Blois, Nov 5, 1862; d Paris, 1927).

French ceramics manufacturer. He was initially a physics and chemistry teacher and in 1889 visited the Exposition Universelle in Paris, where he saw Chinese porcelain with opaque glazes that enhanced the ground colours and emphasized the forms of the body. He transferred this technique to stoneware, a less expensive material that has the advantage of being able to withstand great variations of temperature when fired. In this way, with one type of ceramic body, it is possible to vary the degree to which enamels are fused in order to obtain dull, oily or crystalline finishes in the greatest possible variation of colours.

Bigot exhibited his work in the Salons from 1894 and through Siegfried Bing in 1897. In 1900 he won a major prize at the Exposition Universelle, for which he made a frieze of animals in low relief, after the design by the sculptor Paul Jouve (b 1880...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Elizabeth Adams

English ceramic manufactory. The first Bow patent for ‘a certain material whereby a ware might be made … equal to … China or Porcelain ware imported from abroad’ was taken out in east London in December 1744 by the Irish artist Thomas Frye (c. 1710–62) and by Edward Heylyn (1695–1765). The early undertaking, significantly named ‘New Canton’, was founded to undercut Chinese imports and was probably financed by Alderman George Arnold (1691–1751). John Weatherby (d 1762) and John Crowther (d 1790), who had been partners in pottery and glassmaking ventures since 1725, completed the board of proprietors. An important ingredient in the original paste and mentioned in the 1744 patent was ‘Unaker’, possibly a china clay imported from Carolina. The soft paste used at Bow was unique in being the first to incorporate calcined bone-ash (mentioned as ‘Virgin earth’ in the second Bow patent of ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

One-piece teapot with no lid, filled through a hole in the bottom; the tea runs through a tube from the bottom to the top, and when the teapot is turned to an upright position the tea can be poured through the spout. The design was based on a Chinese wine-pot, of which an example must have been brought to England in the late 18th century, possibly by a member of the family of the Earl of Cadogan. Cadogan teapots were first manufactured in the early 19th century at the Rockingham Porcelain Factory and thereafter by other English manufacturers....

Article

Roger S. Edmundson

English ceramic manufactory. Production at the Salopian China Manufactory on the Caughley estate, near Ironbridge, Salop, was started in 1775 by Thomas Turner (1749–1809), a Freeman of Worcester, and Ambrose Gallimore (fl c. 1749–c. 1787), who was active at the estate and may already have been directing potting there. They were encouraged by the availability of coal on site and the proximity of the Severn waterway to Worcester and Bristol as potential markets. Robert Hancock, the former Worcester engraver, was briefly associated with the venture. Until c. 1794 a wide range of useful wares was produced in a soapstone soft-paste porcelain similar to that used at the Worcester factory. Simple shapes and underglaze blue, transfer-printed or painted decoration emulated the style of the wares produced at the Worcester, Chantilly and Tournai factories. A variety of engraved designs was based on Chinese handpainted patterns. Between 1789...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, Dec 11, 1848; d New York, Jan 18, 1931).

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by George Inness and Winslow Homer. By dealing in such works and by giving frequent exhibitions, Clarke enhanced the popularity of these artists, while also realizing large profits for himself. His founding of Art House, New York, in 1890 confirms the profit motive behind his collecting practices. The most notable sale of his paintings took place in 1899, when he sold at auction 373 contemporary American works at a profit of between 60 and 70%. Four landscapes by Inness—Grey, Lowery Day (c. 1876–7; untraced), Delaware Valley (1865; New York, Met.), Clouded Sun (1891; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mus. A.) and Wood Gatherers: Autumn Afternoon...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[Nin’ami Dōhachi; Takahashi Mitsuoki]

(b Kyoto, 1783; d ?Fushimi, Kyoto Prefect., 1855).

Japanese ceramicist. He was the second-generation head of the Dōhachi family. His father, Dōhachi, son of a retainer of the Kameyama fief in the province of Ise, established a kiln at Awataguchi in Kyoto in the Hōreki era (1751–64), thereby forming his own school, and later assumed the name Takahashi Dōhachi. Along with Aoki Mokubei, and Eiraku Hozen, the younger Takahashi Dōhachi was one of the most famous makers kyōyaki (‘Kyoto ceramics’), especially polychrome (overglaze) enamels, in the later Edo period (1600–1868). As a youth he followed his father into the ceramics trade, and then became a disciple of Okuda Eisen. From 1806 he was permitted to conduct official business with the prince–abbot (monzeki) of the temple Shōren’in, which secured his reputation as the leading potter of Awataguchi. In 1814 he moved to the Gojōzaka district, where he built a kiln and perfected the craft of making blue-and-white ceramics. He produced some superbly elegant pieces of ...

Article

Echizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan, based on some 20 kiln sites 7 km north-west of the city of Takefu (Fukui Prefect.). Echizen is known as one of Japan’s ‘Six Old Kilns’. It is one of three centres that arose in the area (the others being Kaga and Suzu) in the 12th century in response to increased agricultural production. Ceramics appeared in Fukui Prefecture in the 6th century ad with the manufacture of Sue stoneware, fired in tunnel kilns (anagama; see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (a)). In the 12th century, however, increased agricultural production, coupled with the introduction of new technology, encouraged the development of a higher-fired brown stoneware. The use of a tunnel kiln with a dividing pillar, the manufacture of jars with everted rims and incised horizontal bands and the use of the coil-and-paddle technique in the early Echizen wares point to origins in kilns such as ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[Yōtoku; Yingchuan]

(b Kyoto, 1753; d Kyoto, 1811).

Japanese potter. He is thought to have been the grandson of Chinese immigrants who came to Japan to escape the turbulence at the end of the Ming period (1368–1644). He was adopted into the Okuda family of wealthy pawnbrokers, who patronized the Buddhist temple Kenninji, where, according to one account, Eisen lodged for a time. The temple was famous as a centre of Chinese learning, and it was probably this contact that stimulated Eisen’s first attempts at making Chinese-style ceramics. By the 1780s he was producing copies of late Ming-period enamelled porcelain called gosu akae (gosu: a type of mineral; aka: ‘red’; akae ‘red design’, a type of ware introduced to Japan in the 17th century). Ceramicists in Kyoto had experimented with porcelain earlier in the 18th century, but Eisen was the first to make sustained use of the material, although it is unclear how he acquired the basic clay for porcelain. He is now known to have studied ceramic techniques at ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Liverpool, April 18, 1863; d London, Dec 19, 1939).

English collector. The eldest son of a Greek merchant, Eumorfopoulos worked for the merchant firm of Ralli Brothers. He initially collected European porcelains and Japanese tea bowls but then turned to Chinese objects, which became his largest collection, emphasizing pottery and porcelains. His second interest was metalwork, and he formed a fine collection of Chinese bronzes; he was also interested in other media, such as jade. He chose items based on his aesthetic response rather than archaeological or rarity value, and he thus placed himself at the forefront of Western taste for Chinese art. From 1924 he also began to acquire Islamic art and formed a separate Chinese collection for the Benaki Museum, Athens, so that the museum eventually had nearly 800 examples of Chinese pottery and porcelain. Eumorfopoulos was elected the first president of the Oriental Ceramic Society in 1921 and retained this position until his death, his house becoming central to the activities of the society. In ...