You are looking at  1-20 of 39 results  for:

  • Photorealism x
  • Twentieth-Century Art x
Clear All

Article

Jonathan Stephenson

Reviser Andy Penaluna

Hand-held painting instrument, of about the same size as or slightly larger than a pen, that delivers paint in a controlled spray. It is connected to a supply of compressed air by a flexible hose and draws paint from an integral reservoir or attached cup. Depending on the sophistication of the model, the user may control the supply of air and paint and the spray pattern in varying degrees. Additional effects are achieved by a form of stencilling, using special masking film or other means to protect areas of the artwork that are either yet to be worked upon, or have already been completed by the artist. An airbrush may be used with any paint if it is sufficiently thinned and contains pigment particles that are suitably fine. Dyes are also employed. Versions of several media exist that are specifically intended for airbrush application.

Airbrush evolved due to popularisation of the photograph and a demand for enlarged photographic likenesses, especially in portraiture. Crayon and pastel were commonly employed. In an attempt to provide more permanent and expeditious alternatives, pigment atomisation devices were designed in the 1870s. Frank E. Stanley of Auburn, Maine, and Abner Peeler of Fort Dodge, Iowa patented alternative forms of artist’s atomisers, termed ‘Paint Distributors’. In ...

Article

Bojan Ivanov

(b Skopje, Feb 25, 1935).

Macedonian painter. In 1962 he graduated from the Academy of Arts in Belgrade, where he studied under the painter Ljubica Sokićh (b 1914). After returning to Skopje, Anastasov began to work in the field of non-figurative art. In the 1960s he focused on the structural qualities of the painting’s surface, which he rendered with layers of red and black impasto. By the end of the 1960s, stimulated by Photorealism, he abandoned crude brushwork and the traditional colours of Macedonian embroideries in favour of an urban sensibility. During the 1970s he exhibited works from his series Man and Skies (1974–6) and Man and Time (1977–9). In the 1980s he produced the series Man and Space, a statement on the human condition (e.g. Man and Space XXVI, 1981; Skopje, Mus. Contemp. A.), with numerous tiny, alienated human silhouettes populating immense interiors and empty spaces rendered in pale, attenuated colours. Between ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1938, in New York.

Painter, watercolourist. Urban landscapes.

John Baeder paints in an exaggerated realist style which places him among the Hyperrealists. He enjoys painting typically American places, such as small tourist camps and converted trucks, buses or trailers used for selling hamburgers by the side of the road or in towns....

Article

Janet Bishop

(b San Francisco, CA, May 14, 1932).

American painter. Native of the San Francisco Bay Area, known for careful observation and explicit use of snapshot-like photographic source material for paintings of family, cars, and residential neighborhoods. The artist rose to national and international prominence in early 1970s as part of the Photorealist movement (see Photorealism).

From the 1960s, Bechtle pursued a quiet realism based on the things he knew best, translating what seem to be ordinary scenes of middle-class American life into paintings. Following an early childhood in the Bay Area and Sacramento, his family settled in 1942 in Alameda, an island suburb adjacent to Oakland where his mother would occupy the same house for almost 60 years. The neighborhood appears in many of Bechtle’s paintings.

Bechtle earned both his BFA (1954) and his MFA (1958) at Oakland’s California College of Arts and Crafts, where he studied graphic design and then painting. During his student years and into the 1960s, Bechtle was influenced by Pop art’s precedent for the use of commercial subject matter and techniques. He was likewise interested in Bay Area figuration, especially the subjects and structure of paintings by ...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Born 1922, in Ovansjö.

Sculptor.

Bejemark produced abstract and mainly geometrical sculptures, with dimensions often bordering on the monumental. However, he also sculpted portraits, using a hyper-realist technique of polychrome bronze.

Stockholm (Moderna Mus.)

Stockholm, 20 April 1985...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935; died 1995.

Painter.

Charles Bell practises the technique of photorealism, often featuring unusual objects, even children's mechanical toys, avoiding the stereotype of Hyper-Realism by starting from an existing reality that is either ready-made or already at two removes thanks to photography. He has taken part in group exhibitions on Hyper-Realism at the Institute of Arts in Kalamazoo, the South Bend Art Center, the Springfield Art Museum (Missouri), the Dartmouth College Museums and Galleries, Hanover, and the DeCordova Museum, Lincoln (Massachusetts)....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 9 March 1938, in Chicago.

Painter.

Tom Blackwell's early work was abstract, but influenced by Pop Art, he moved towards photorealism and began to paint large-scale works, which often featured motorcycles, cars and planes.

1966, Psychedelic Art, Riverside Museum, New York...

Article

Milan Ivelić

(b Valparaíso, Nov 8, 1936; d Taroudant, June 4, 2011).

Chilean painter and draughtsman. He studied painting in Santiago in 1947–8 with the Chilean painter Miguel Venegas, then lived in Spain from 1961 to 1972 before moving to Tangiers. His entire artistic career has been conducted outside his native country.

Bravo initially worked as a portrait painter, supporting himself in Spain through commissions, which also introduced him into Spanish high society. His sitters included General Franco and his family. Later, while still in Spain, he began painting packages and wrapped objects in a polished, highly detailed realist style bordering on Photorealism but consciously related to the Spanish still-life tradition represented by Zurbarán and Velázquez, whose work he greatly admired. He remarked that he hoped to be regarded as one of the few 20th-century painters to have respected the work of the Old Masters and learnt from it.

Working with both oil paints and pastels, after moving to Morocco, Bravo combined objects with human figures in interior spaces, displaying perfect control of the luminous atmosphere and the strict perspective. While his technical facility was undeniable, the ambiguity of his subject-matter and the mysteriousness of his settings, tempering the clarity of the figures and objects, led him beyond the mere reproduction of appearances. Unlike the Photorealists, who tended to present their images as straightforward visual evidence, Bravo used his motifs as a way of dealing with obsessions such as narcissism or the random meeting of figures unconnected in time. An illusory and confusing interplay between reality and representation is central to Bravo’s work, leaving the spectator unsure whether what he is seeing lies inside or outside the painting....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Painter.

Capriata participated in group exhibitions from 1967 in various towns in Lorraine, Burgundy and elsewhere in France. Jean Capriata's technique borders on hyper-realism and his work is a highly complex permutation of extremely precise elements and vague and non-specific allusion....

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b London, Jan 29, 1936; d London, Sept 29, 2005).

English painter and printmaker. He began his studies in 1956 at Chelsea School of Art, London, continuing at the Royal College of Art (1960–63), one year below the students identified as originators of Pop art. A reticent man, he remained wary of being identified with any movement but came to be associated with Pop art chiefly through his participation in the New Generation exhibition at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, in 1964.

In the early 1960s Caulfield’s painting was characterized by flat images of objects paired with angular geometric devices or isolated against unmodulated areas of colour. In Portrait of Juan Gris (1963; priv. col., see Livingstone, 1981 exh. cat., no. 5) Caulfield paid tribute to the Cubist painter, whose work, with that of other early modernists such as Léger and Magritte, set the terms for the stylization and formal rigour of his own still-lifes, landscapes and interiors. He adopted the anonymous technique of the sign painter, dispensing with visible brushwork and distracting detail and simplifying the representation of objects to a basic black outline in order to present ordinary images as emblems of a mysterious reality. He deliberately chose subjects that seemed hackneyed or ambiguous in time: not only traditional genres (e.g. ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 14 November 1946, in Paris.

Painter. Scenes with figures.

Bernard Cazaux has lived and worked in Bordeaux since 1978. His painting technique is hyperrealist, tempered with diverse background images and elements inject a touch of humour to his compositions. He has had solo exhibitions in Toulouse (...

Article

(b Monroe, WA, July 5, 1940).

American painter and printmaker. He studied (1960–65) at the University of Washington, Seattle, at Yale University, and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. During this period he painted biomorphic abstract works, influenced by the avant-garde American art of the previous two decades. After a brief experiment with figurative constructions, he began copying black-and-white photographs of a female nude in colour on to canvas. After abandoning this approach he used a black-and-white palette, which resulted in the 6.7 m long Big Nude (1967–8; artist’s col., see Lyons and Storr, p. 14). Finding this subject too ‘interesting’, he turned to neutral, black-and-white head-and-shoulder photographs as models, which he again reproduced in large scale on canvas, as in Self-portrait (1968; Minneapolis, MN, Walker A. Cent.). He incorporated every detail of the photograph and allowed himself no interpretative freedom. Working from photographs enabled him to realize the variations in focus due to changing depth of field, something impossible when working from life. He continued in the black-and-white style until ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Hartlepool, Cleveland, Oct 8, 1936).

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. His childhood was spent in South Wales and from 1942 to 1960 in North Wales, near Wrexham. After studying at Wrexham School of Art (1960–61) and (as a Fine Art student) at the University of Reading (1961–4), he moved immediately to Liverpool, where he remained until 1982. During those years he taught at St Helens School of Art (1964–6) and in the Faculty of Art at Liverpool Polytechnic (1967–82). From 1970 to 1975 he painted in a Photorealist style, as in Scillonian Pumps (acrylic on canvas, 2.56×3.06 m, 1974; Southport, Atkinson A.G.), an uncannily still and empty view of a petrol station with overtones of the work of Edward Hopper. In 1978 he painted seven enormous portraits, all the same size (3.04×2.02 m), on commission from the Arts Council of Great Britain; shown together suspended in the concourse of Lime Street Station, Liverpool, as a single work entitled ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Toulouse.

Painter.

Richard Conte initially adopted a hyper-realist approach to drawing everyday scenes based on photo transparencies. One day, in a fit of anger, he is said to have screwed one of his drawings into a ball and hurled it into a corner of the studio. He found the drawing the following day and attempted to smooth it out, only to be left with a crumpled piece of paper which, to his surprise, he found aesthetically pleasing. This led to a collaboration with the couturiere Hélène Kievitch, for whom Conte went on to design ambiguous clothing' based on similarly crumpled - froissé - designs. More recently, Conte has started cutting up canvases to make theatre costumes and, in his series entitled ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1935, in Brooklyn (New York City).

Painter. Urban landscapes.

Robert Cottingham studied at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. He has been staging solo exhibitions in the USA since 1968.

His painting is Hyperrealist in style and based on photographs. Urban signage is the constant theme of his work. The layout of most of his paintings is based on low-angled, off-centre views, often cutting off the subject. The meaning of the signs is of little interest to Cottingham, who is more concerned with their physical reality, the style of the lettering and their integration into the space of the canvas. His approach is not one of strict Realism but a stylisation of the real, using colours in flat tints....

Article

Francis Summers

(b Cheshire, 1946).

English sculptor and draughtsman. He studied painting at Hull and Manchester College of Art (1963–7), and then moved to London, where he studied at the Slade School of Art (1967–9). Davis’s early work, similar to some of the photorealist sculptors in America, such as Duane Hanson, involved casting figures and dressing them in clothes, for example Young Man (1969–71, London, Tate). He often made group scenarios that suggest of ritual, a suggestion enhanced by the formal clothes the figures wore and also by the masks or hats that Davies placed on them. In works such as Three Figures (1971; see 1985 exh. cat.) there is a dynamic of dominance and submission between the figures, with one kneeling on the floor, another standing on a chair in front of him. Davies subsequently moved away from the extreme realism of these works and began to make work that was more obviously sculpted, such as ...

Article

(Louis)

(b Denver, CO, Nov 24, 1941).

American sculptor. He studied at the University of Colorado, Boulder (1961–5), and was an art assistant at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (1966–8). He had his first one-man show at the OK Harris Gallery in New York in 1970. He rapidly developed a style of casting and then painting fibreglass or polyvinyl acetate sculptures of figures from live models. His techniques evolved to include refinements for achieving his hyper-realistic effects, including layering paint and glazes to depict a variety of skin surfaces and veins, creating individual characteristics such as moles and freckles, and implanting hair instead of adding wigs (see fig.). The extreme verism of his work links it to Photorealism, although it lacks the strong cultural identity evident in much Photorealist sculpture and painting. Many of the sculptures are of one or two young, elegant, and casually posed nude figures, as in ...

Article

Australian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1947.

Painter, performance artist. Figures.

Ivan Durrant produces provocative photo-realist paintings and sculptures of animals that force viewers to acknowledge the butchery involved in the production of meat. In his seminal 1975 work, he left the bloody carcass of a cow outside the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne....

Article

Mark W. Sullivan

(b Long Beach, CA, Nov 4, 1944).

American painter and printmaker. Eddy studied at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu (BFA, 1967, MFA, 1969) and came to prominence in the early 1970s as an exponent of Photorealism, producing airbrushed paintings based on photographs of automobiles (e.g. Untitled, 1971; Aachen, Neue Gal.), the displays in shop windows or still-lifes, as in New Shoes for H (1973; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.). He treated similar subjects in screenprints and in colour lithographs such as Red Mercedes (1972; see 1973 exh. cat., p. 35). Rather than basing a painting or print on a single photograph, as was the case with other photorealists, Eddy would work from as many as 40 photographs to ensure a consistently sharp focus for his often spatially complex images.

From the 1980s Eddy’s focus shifted away from photorealism towards metaphysics, with images placed in porteic relationships to one another; describing his art as ‘echoing ecosystems’....

Article

Christopher Brookeman

(b Kewanee, IL, May 14, 1932).

American painter. He moved with his family to Chicago, where he studied at the Art Institute (1952–6), before going to New York, where most of his paintings are set (although later works were often finished in his house in Maine). His first one-man show was held at the Allan Stone Gallery, New York, in 1968. He sustained a careful commitment to an unvarying subject-matter, usually the built environment of Manhattan, and to Photorealism. His realism is deceptive in that he rearranges the structure of what he originally sees and records through photographs, which form the basis of the final easel-size paintings, to reconstruct reality. He also expands the viewer’s information and sensory field beyond the powers of the naked eye, giving a depth and intensity of vision that only artistic transformation can achieve. Since the paintings are based on more than one photograph, the viewer of an Estes painting perceives, for example, a shop-front window, with a richness that is created by the artist’s technical skills. We can see the surface of the window glass, what it is reflecting, and what is behind it. This characteristic effect is wittily achieved in his ...