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Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in France since 1969.

Born 1946, in Cleveland (Ohio).

Painter, draughtswoman, engraver.

Dana Briggs studied the theory and practice of fine art at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst) between 1965 and 1969. She has participated in collective exhibitions in Paris, including the Salon des Artistes Indépendants (...

Article

Native American (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Montana.

Printmaker, photographer, conceptual artist, installation artist.

Corwin Clairmont, or ‘Corky’, received his MFA from California State University, Los Angeles in 1971. His early work, concerning social and environmental issues, earned him a Ford Foundation Grant (...

Article

Native American (Okanagan), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Omak, Washington.

Printmaker, muralist, sculptor, mixed-media artist. Collage, glass.

Born in 1953, Joe Feddersen is an Okanagan member of the Colville Confederated Tribes, and a Native American artist. He earned his BFA at the University of Washington (...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, in Ohio.

Painter, lithographer, art historian.

AfriCobra Group.

Michael D. Harris studied at Howard University, Washington DC, before earning a PhD from Yale University. He is a member of the group AfriCobra (African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists), which promotes an art in the service and for the advancement of the Afro-American community. He began teaching at the University of North Carolina in ...

Article

Native American (Cheyenne and Arapaho), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 22 November, 1954, in Wichita (Kansas).

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, printmaker, installation artist, conceptual artist, educator.

Edgar Heap of Birds is one of the most distinguished North American indigenous artists of his generation. His works reveal a distinctly critical and historical awareness of the ways that American Indian peoples, their histories and their viewpoints have been ignored and written over under colonialism. He has received numerous honours, presenting his work in competition for the United States Pavilion at the 52nd Venice Biennale (...

Article

Anne K. Swartz

(b Pasedena, CA, 1949).

American painter and printmaker. Kushner received a BA in visual arts with honors from the University of California at San Diego, La Jolla. There he met critic and art historian Amy Goldin, a visiting professor, and artist Kim MacConnel, a graduate student. Goldin taught Kushner and MacConnel about Islamic art and decoration, among many other topics. She encouraged them to examine decoration and Islamic art, among other sources to transgress the boundaries of what was art in their own work.

With Goldin’s support, Kushner became a champion of decoration, later telling his dealer Holly Solomon that he wanted to elevate decoration in much the same way Pop artists elevated commercial art. Kushner moved from California to Boston before relocating to New York City, where he befriended artist Brad Davis, who was similarly engaged in considering decoration as a mode for making art. In 1974, Kushner traveled with Goldin to Turkey, Iran and Afganistan, where he became fascinated by textile patterning, garments and architectural decoration. He returned to the United States and began actively incorporating much of this visual material into his art, in a manner reminiscent of artist Henri Matisse 50 years earlier following his trips to Morocco....

Article

Native American (Wintu-Nomtipom/Tenai), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 5 October 1937, in San Francisco.

Artist, poet, writer, traditional dancer.

Frank LaPena, of the Wintu-Nomtipom/Tenai of Northern California, is a key figure, along with a number of other important Native artists working in California during the 1970s, in what has been termed a ‘Renaissance’ in California Indian arts. Many of LaPena’s artworks engage directly with his awareness of California Indian experience and memory. He has used Mount Shasta significantly as a source of inspiration. As was usual for his generation, he attended a federal Indian boarding school (in Stewart, Nevada) and experienced its harsh assimilationist doctrines. He began to be interested in the arts during high school and this developed further during his undergraduate years at California State University, Chico. Later earning a teaching credential at San Francisco State University and a Masters of Arts degree at CSU, Sacramento, he would eventually teach at the latter as Professor of Art and Ethnic Studies. He has said that he learnt more from his California Indian elders than anything presented to him in the state education system. Now retired, he continues to hold leadership roles in the arts both locally and nationally....

Article

Native American (Seneca and Tuscarora), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1942, in Oshweken (Ontario).

Artist, educator, writer, curator.

George Longfish is a distinguished and internationally respected artist whose works often blend humour with a note of irony to draw attention to the problems of representation and stereotypic formulations found in many images and beliefs concerning American Indians. This is shown most effectively in the work ...

Article

Russian, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 8 August 1943, in Tripoli, USSR (now Republic of Georgia)

Photographer, painter, sculptor, printmaker, installation artist.

Soviet Nonconformist Art; Moscow Conceptualism.

Collective Actions (group).

Igor Makarevich grew up Tbilisi, Georgia before moving to Moscow in 1951. From 1955 to 1962...

Article

Native American (Crow), 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1981, in Billings (Montana).

3D, collage and installation artist, photographer, printmaker.

Wendy Red Star, member of the Crow Nation and niece of noted Crow painter Kevin Red Star, works in a variety of media to produce multi-layered artworks which point to complexities in indigenous North American experience today. Drawing particularly on her years growing up near to the Crow Indian Reservation in Northern Montana, in collages such as ...

Article

Native American (Muscogee Creek and Seminole), 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1951, in Wewoka (Oklahoma).

Sculptor, installation artist.

C. Maxx Stevens was born in Oklahoma but raised in Wichita, Kansas. Her training began in the 1970s when she gained an Associate of Arts degree from Haskell Indian Junior College in ...

Article

Mark Allen Svede

(b Tallinn, 1942).

Estonian printmaker. He was a design student at the Estonian SSR State Art Institute in Tallinn (1962–7) when he first came to prominence as the leader and theorist of ANK ’64, a group of nonconformist student artists, formed in response to the suffocating conditions of Soviet culture. In his flat, Vint held seminars on modern art and a broad range of theoretical interests, from oriental philosophy to Jungian archetypal theory and semiotics. These private gatherings incurred the wrath of officials, who harassed Vint and limited his professional opportunities. Nevertheless, as editor of Kunst, Estonia’s principal art publication, Vint played a countervailing role against officialdom. He encouraged a rediscovery of the indigenous avant-garde, particularly the Estonian Artists’ Group , which profoundly inspired his contemporary, Leonhard Lapin . Vint’s own work from the 1970s was typically spare and geometric, with the occasional addition of erotic female motifs in the style of Aubrey Beardsley. A folio of erotic minimalist images was inexplicably accepted for publication in ...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....