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Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 30 August 1883, in Utrecht, to a German father; died 7 March 1931, in Davos, Switzerland.

Painter, architect.

Neo-Plasticism.

Groups: Sphinx, De Stijl, Dada, Art Concret.

Theo van Doesburg was destined first of all for a theatrical career, writing poetry, stories and plays, and then beginning as an essayist and getting articles published. He probably began painting about ...

Article

Allan Doig

(b Utrecht, Aug 30, 1883; d Davos, Switzerland, March 7, 1931).

Dutch painter, architect, designer and writer. He was officially registered as the son of Wilhelm Küpper and Henrietta Catharina Margadant, but he was so convinced that his mother’s second husband, Theodorus Doesburg, was his father that he took his name. Little is known of his early life, but he began painting naturalistic subjects c. 1899. In 1903 he began his military service, and around the same time he met his first wife, Agnita Feis, a Theosophist and poet. Between about 1908 and 1910, much influenced by the work of Honoré Daumier, he produced caricatures, some of which were later published in his first book De maskers af! (1916). Also during this period he painted some Impressionist-inspired landscapes and portraits in the manner of George Hendrik Breitner. Between 1914 and 1915 the influence of Kandinsky became clear in such drawings as Streetmusic I and Streetmusic II (The Hague, Rijksdienst Beeld. Kst) and other abstract works....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1901, in Wuppertal (Ruhr); died 1964 or 1978, in Blacksburg, USA.

Painter, photographer, designer.

Neo-Plasticism.

De Stijl, Novembergruppe, New Vision Photography..

Photobooks.

Werner Gräff was a student of Johannes Itten at the Bauhaus in Weimar between ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in the Netherlands from 1905.

Born 1884, in Budapest; died 1960, in Hierden.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, still-lifes.

Neo-Plasticism.

De Stijl.

Vilmos Huszar studied at the school of applied art in Budapest and at the Hollósy studio in Munich. Shortly after his arrival in the Netherlands in ...

Article

Sjarel Ex

(b Budapest, Jan 5, 1884; d Hierden, nr Harderwijk, Sept 8, 1960).

Hungarian painter, decorative artist, typographer and writer, active in the Netherlands. He studied at the Academy of Applied Arts in Budapest from 1901 to 1903, and then at the academy in Munich (1904). For a short period he was a member of the artists’ colonies of Tecsö and Nagybánya in Hungary, before moving to The Hague in 1906 as a portrait painter to the local aristocracy. Huszár’s interest in the work of van Gogh and in modern developments in Paris and London gradually led him from portraits and landscapes in bright colours, such as Reclining Female (1913; Otterlo, Kröller-Müller), to an abstract style in painting and stained glass influenced by Cubism and Futurism; an example of this is Vincent (1915; Amsterdam, J. P. Smid priv. col.)

In 1916 Huszár met Theo van Doesburg, who admired his work and was influenced by his stained-glass windows. In 1917...

Article

Dutch, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 26 November 1876, in Utrecht; died 1958, in Blaricum-Amsterdam.

Painter, potter, lithographer. Murals, designs for stained glass.

Groups: De Stijl, Abstraction-Création.

Bart van der Leck started out working for various glassmakers in his native Utrecht before going on to attend the college of industrial arts (where he studied under A.J. van der Kinderen) and then the royal academy of fine arts in Amsterdam. He lived in Amersfoort ...

Article

John Steen

[Louise Marie]

(b Amsterdam, May 3, 1894; d Blaricum, Feb 1, 1983).

Dutch painter. She trained at the Rijksacademie in Amsterdam (1915–18). She discovered Cubism, especially that of Albert Gleizes, the work of De Stijl and of Le Corbusier in 1919. During 1920–21 the form in her work became more rigid and the colour more sober. She came into contact with works by Piet Mondrian in the Salomon Bernard Slijper (1884–1971) collection (now at the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague), in particular Evolution (1910–11) and Red Windmill (1910). In 1927 she travelled to the Bauhaus at Dessau and to Berlin. She favoured subjects taken from industry and technology and stylized reality using the diagonal, as well as the horizontal and vertical line. A link with visible reality was maintained, however.

‘Herinneringen door Lou Loeber’ [Lou Loeber’s memories], Centraal Museum Utrecht mededelingen, 28–9 (1980) [incl. bibliog.] Lou Loeber: Utopie en werkelijkheid (exh. cat.by M. Bloemheuvel; Laren, Singer Mus., 1993)...

Article

John Steen

[Dut.: ‘Modern art circle’]

Group of Dutch artists founded in November 1910 on the initiative of John Conrad Theodor Kickert (1882–1965), a Dutch painter and critic, who had moved to Paris in 1909. The objective was to convey to the Netherlands the latest developments in painting in Paris. Its members included a large number of Dutch painters who either had connections with Paris or lived there. Kickert financed the venture. The first exhibition was held between 6 October and 5 November 1911 at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. It was a great success, attracting 6000 visitors. Of the 166 works shown, half came from abroad. As ‘father of Cubism’, Paul Cézanne was well represented by 28 works from the Hoogendijk collection; also exhibited were 19 works by Auguste Herbin, 7 by Pablo Picasso and 6 by Georges Braque. The Paris-based painter Lodewijk Schelfhout (1881–1943), one of the first Dutch artists to paint in a Cubist style, submitted 12 works; other Dutch artists, such as ...

Article

Dutch, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 March 1872, in Amersfoort (Utrecht), The Netherlands; died 1 February 1944, in New York (New York), United States.

Painter.

Neo-Plasticism.

De Stijl.

Piet Cornelis Mondrian was born into a strict Calvinist family. His father, the headmaster of a primary school in Amersfoort, insisted that his son secure his future by obtaining a degree in education. Mondrian complied with his father’s wishes and obtained formal qualifications enabling him to teach drawing and composition at secondary-school level. In 1892, however, Mondrian enrolled at the Rijksacademie in Amsterdam, where he is recorded as having been a diligent student. In order to earn some money, Mondrian gave drawing lessons in his spare time, sold copies of paintings that hung in local art galleries, and produced industrial blueprints. He maintained a close relationship with Jan Sluijters and Simon Maris, accompanying the latter on a trip to Spain in 1901....

Article

(b Amersfoort, March 7, 1872; d New York, Feb 1, 1944).

Dutch painter, theorist, and draughtsman. His work marks the transition at the start of the 20th century from the Hague school and Symbolism to Neo-Impressionism and Cubism. His key position within the international avant-garde is determined by works produced after 1920. He set out his theory in the periodical of Stijl, De, in a series of articles that were summarized in a separate booklet published in Paris in 1920 under the title Le Néo-plasticisme (see Neo-plasticism) by Léonce Rosenberg. The essence of Mondrian’s ideas is that painting, composed of the most fundamental aspects of line and colour, must set an example to the other arts for achieving a society in which art as such has no place but belongs instead to the total realization of ‘beauty’. The representation of the universal, dynamic pulse of life, also expressed in modern jazz and the metropolis, was Mondrian’s point of departure. Even in his lifetime he was regarded as the founder of the most ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active from 1937 to 1954 active then naturalised in the Netherlands.

Born 1897 or 1899, in Osnabrück (Westphalia); died 1963, in Ulm.

Painter, collage artist.

Groups: 'K', De Stijl, Der Sturm, Cercle et Carré, Abstraction-Création.

Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart studied interior design and architecture in ...