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Daniel Le Couédic

[Hippolyte]

(b Nantes, March 19, 1891; d Paris, Jan 20, 1966).

French architect and teacher. A student of Alfred-Henri Recoura (1864–1939), he graduated from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1920. He settled in Paris, and his first works were influenced by Art Deco. In 1923 he became one of the two architects of the new seaside resort of Sables-d’Or-les-Pins (Côtes-du-Nord). There, and in the nearby village of Val-André, Abraham began his analysis and rejection of the picturesque in such buildings as Villa Miramar (1928) and Villa Ramona (1929). In 1929, in partnership with Henry-Jacques Le Même (b 1897), he made his first design for a sanatorium, later executing three examples at Passy (Haute-Savoie), which are among his best works: Roc-de-Fiz (1931), Guébriant (1933) and Geoffroy de Martel de Janville (1939). Two blocks of flats built in Paris in 1931 (at 28 Boulevard Raspail and Square Albinoni) characterize the peak of his production in their precision and sobriety of composition, moderate use of the modernist vocabulary and use of new techniques and materials....

Article

(b Boulogne-sur-Seine, May 3, 1870; d Paris, Aug 14, 1935).

French architect. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Paul-René-Léon Ginain and Louis-Henri-Georges Scellier de Gisors, receiving his architectural diploma in 1892. His early work included S. Bing’s Art Nouveau pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 (inspired by Louis Bonnier’s initial project), blocks of flats in Paris in ashlar work, for example 236–238 Boulevard Raspail, 105 Rue Raymond Poincaré (both 1906) and the corner site of the Avenues du Bois de Boulogne et Malakoff (c. 1908), as well as regionalist constructions (garage in Neuilly and rural buildings in Herqueville and Heilly). He participated regularly in the competitions organized by the City of Paris, building low-cost housing schemes in the Rue Brillat-Savarin (1914–30) and the garden city at Chatenay-Malabry (1920–32) in collaboration with Joseph Bassompierre and Paul de Rutté. Following World War I he was named architect for the reconstruction schemes for the districts of Aisne and Pas-de-Calais....

Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France.

The development of the Art Deco style, or the Style moderne as it was called at the time, closely paralleled the initiation of the 1925...

Article

Term generally applied to architecture and design movements between 1925 and 1945. Derived from the title of the international exhibition of industrial and decorative arts held in Paris in 1925, ‘Art Deco’ was coined in 1968 by British historian Bevis Hillier to describe the architecture and design arts of the 1920s and 1930s, known at the time as Art Moderne. In actuality, Art Deco is a catchall term for different developments in the design arts and architecture between the World Wars. In some circles, Art Deco is considered an outgrowth of French Art Nouveau, the German Jugendstil and the Arts and Crafts Movement. Architectural historian David Gebhard distinguished three styles within Art Deco architecture in America: ‘Zigzag Moderne’, ‘Streamlined Moderne’ and the more classically retrained ‘PWA Moderne’ or ‘Federal Moderne’. These same three, Robert Craig labels ‘Art Deco’, ‘Streamlined Moderne’ and ‘Modern classic in American architecture’. Design historian Jeffrey L. Meikle refers to varying Art Deco styles as ‘exposition style’, ‘modernistic’ and ‘streamlined’, avoiding using the phrase ‘streamline[d] moderne’ as it suggests a strong connection with the French Moderne style....

Article

Richard Guy Wilson

Richard Guy Wilson

Stylistic term applied to architecture and decorative arts of the 1920s and 1930s whose origin partially lies with the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris (see Art Deco). The term was invented in 1966 and initially applied just to French 1920s design but shortly thereafter grew to encompass a wide variety of modernist architecture and design that displayed decorative traits that stood in contrast to the more austere Modern style sometimes known as Functionalism, Bauhaus style, or International Style. Synonyms for Art Deco have included Style moderne, Art Moderne, Modernistic, Cubistic, Manhattan style, skyscraper style, setback style, zigzag style, streamlined, stripped Classicism, Greco Deco, and others.

The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925 was a lavish spectacle of pavilions and exhibits that showcased the latest modern tendencies in French and foreign design. Originally scheduled for ...

Article

Regina Maria Prosperi Meyer

(Antonio da Cunha )

(b Rio de Janeiro, Dec 4, 1891; d São Paulo, Aug 1980).

Brazilian architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Escuola Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro (1908–10, 1918–20) and carried out his major work in the 1920s and 1930s, during the transition from eclecticism to Modernism in Brazil. He was strongly influenced by the work of the Perret brothers, the potential of reinforced concrete and Art Deco, and he became a pioneer of the rational use of reinforced concrete in the Art Deco style. His first major work was the 30-storey headquarters of the newspaper A Noite (1927; with Joseph Gire), Rio de Janeiro. It was the tallest reinforced concrete building in Brazil at that time, pioneering in its use of a rational structural design worked out by Emilio Baungart, the engineer who was later responsible for the structure of the Ministry of Education and Health building (1937) in Rio by Le Corbusier. In ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1882, in Nantes; died 1932.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, stylist. Figures, portraits, landscapes. Stage costumes and sets.

Art Deco.

On the suggestion of his friends Lesage and Broca, Georges Barbier studied with Jean-Paul Laurens. He was to work mainly for the theatre and the cinema, designing costumes and sets. He was responsible for Rudolph Valentino's costumes in the film ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born in Lille.

Sculptor. Figures, portraits, animals.

Art Deco.

Marguerite de Bayser-Gratry was a pupil of the sculptor Charles Vital-Cornu. Her most important works were shown at the Salon des Artistes Français. These include busts, portraits and figures such as: Maternity; Woman from Martinique...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born in Paris.

Sculptor.

Art Deco.

Gabriel Beauvais exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in 1909, at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1914 and at the Salon des Artistes Français between 1912 and 1925, where he also became a member.

Paris...

Article

Alan Powers

(Percy)

(b London, April 8, 1881; d London, April 15, 1939).

English designer. His early life was divided between the stage and the sea. He was a theatre designer in London and New York, and his stage career continued after World War I service and his survival of the sinking of the Lusitania. In 1924 he was Consultant Artistic and Technical Director of the British Empire Exhibition, Wembley, London, designing murals and restaurant interiors, as well as presentations in the Government Theatre (‘Attack on Zeebrugge’) and the Admiralty Theatre (‘Air attack on London’). He is chiefly remembered for his design work for J. Lyons & Co., the London hotel and catering firm. Bernard’s displays of marble, glass and chromium plate were dazzling but inexpensive. For the Tottenham Court Road Corner House (1926), London, he made an inlaid marble decoration of Niagara Falls, now covered over. The entrance to the Strand Palace Hotel (1930–31; dismantled, parts in London, V&A) was one of London’s few Art Deco extravaganzas. Bernard also had a lively interest in the Modern Movement, assisting in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 15 October 1886, in Paris; died 1972.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Nudes, landscapes, still-lifes, flowers.

Art Deco.

Bonfils exhibited his work in Paris at the Salon des Tuileries and especially at the Salon d'Automne until 1938. He is considered to be a typical Art Deco style artist and took part in an exhibition at the Pavillon de Marsan: ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1888, in Meissen; died 1970, in Meissen.

Painter (porcelain). Figures. Designs (medals/medallions).

Jugendstil, Art Deco.

Paul Börner trained at a private porcelain painting studio in Meissen between 1902 and 1905. From 1905 to 1910, he took lessons at the Kunstgewerbeschule, and then at the Kunstakademie in Dresden, where he was a pupil of Richard Müller and Oskar Zwintscher. He travelled to Italy ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 13 December 1875, in Dijon; died 30 November 1960, in Paris.

Sculptor, medallist, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, historical portraits, figures, animals. Monuments, low reliefs, groups, statues, medals.

Art Deco.

Henri Louis Bouchard was the son of a carpenter and a seamstress. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Dijon before entering the studio of Barrias at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he was awarded the Grand Prix de Rome for sculpture in ...

Article

Marie-Laure Crosnier Leconte

(Oscar)

(b The Hague, 1834; d Jouy-en-Josas, Sept 13, 1907).

French architect of Dutch birth. He moved to France about 1840, when his mother, who was divorced, married the French architect Léon Vaudoyer, who, like her, was a Protestant. In 1868 he adopted French nationality. Bouwens studied architecture (1853–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in the ateliers of Henri Labrouste and Vaudoyer. Thanks to the influence of his stepfather he then joined the administration of the City of Paris, first as deputy inspector to his stepfather at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers and from 1860 as chief architect for the 16e arrondissement. Through his involvement in the development of Auteuil he gained the confidence of its backer, Baron Erlanger, a businessman of German origin who had made his fortune in France under the Second Empire, and this led to some private commissions. In 1861 Bouwens also married into a German family with connections in international finance. The resulting network of family connections and private patronage enabled him to give up his administrative posts and devote himself entirely to a wealthy and cosmopolitan clientele, many of whose members were Jewish or Protestant, for which he produced work in an eclectic and refined style that was rooted in the Second Empire. This clientele expanded from the financial world to include collectors, authors and foreign aristocrats....

Article

José Manuel Fernandes

(b Lisbon, Aug 15, 1897; d Lisbon, April 24, 1970).

Portuguese architect. He graduated in architecture (1926) from the Escola de Belas Artes, Lisbon, and early in his career produced one of the most impressive Art Deco buildings in Lisbon, the Eden cinema (1930–31; with Carlos Dias; later altered), Praça dos Restauradores. This building incorporated suggestions of Futurism, notably in the dynamic spatial design and definition of the main entrance and staircase system as well as the volumetric glass façade. He also designed one of the city’s most imaginative Rationalist buildings, the Hotel Vitória (1934, Avenida da Liberdade. He later worked on the Coliseum (1939; with Júlio de Brito and Mário de Abreu) in Rua Passos Manuel, Oporto, another important Modernist building. One of the most talented architects of the early Modern Movement in Portugal, Branco was an unusual figure and a combative personality; his early involvement in left-wing political activity resulted in his increasing professional isolation in the context of the reactionary government (...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 22 February 1894, in São Paulo; died 17 December 1955, in São Paulo.

Sculptor. Figures. Busts, groups, monuments.

Art Deco.

Brecheret lived in Europe and at first in Rome, where he studied sculpture under the supervision of the sculptor Arturo Dazzi between ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features. Figures, landscapes. Statues.

Art Deco.

François Brochet was the son of the painter and playwright Henri Brochet, and was taught dance, theatre and puppeteering at home. In ...

Article

Lisa Stone

(b Hamilton, AL, Dec 10, 1941; d Atlanta, GA, Nov 22, 1997).

American painter, printmaker, and collector. Brown was raised in Alabama, where his religious upbringing and interest in folk and material culture, comics aesthetics, and vernacular and Art Deco architecture were formative. He moved to Chicago in 1962 and earned a certificate in commercial design prior to studying at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (SAIC), where he gravitated to pre-Renaissance Italian art, Surrealism, artists Edward Hopper, Grant Wood, and Georgia O’Keeffe, and tribal art. Painter Ray Yoshida and art historian Whitney Halstead were seminal influences at SAIC. Both included folk, popular, and self-taught art within the scope of their teaching.

Brown earned his BFA (1968) and his MFA (1970) at SAIC. Works by Brown and fellow students were recognized by curator Don Baum, who organized spirited ‘Chicago School’ exhibitions at the Hyde Park Art Center (HPAC) from 1966 to 1971; Brown’s work was shown there with the group False Image (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 December 1886, in Saintes; died 1986.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, decorative designer, sculptor, ceramicist. Scenes with figures, nudes, portraits, still-lifes, landscapes, animals. Designs for stained glass.

Japonisme, Art Deco.

School of Bordeaux.

René Buthaud worked first of all in Bordeaux under François Quinsac and then, ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 24 January 1901, in Kharkov, Ukraine; died 18 June 1968, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman, graphic designer, poster artist. Stage sets.

Art Deco.

Cassandre moved to Paris in 1915 and studied at the Académie Julian. He devoted himself to advertising as of 1922 and was responsible for publicity campaigns and poster artwork, including some of the most striking and memorable of the day: ...