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Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 2 December 1899, in Albisola; died May 1971, in Albisola.

Ceramicist, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, screen printer, photographer. Artists' books.

Futurism.

Tullio d'Albisola studied with his father Giuseppe, a master potter, then with Gaetano Ballardini at the international university pottery class in Faenza, which he entered in ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, female.

Born 1871 or 1872, in Geneva; died 1938, in Lausanne.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), engraver. Figures, nudes, still-lifes, landscapes. Designs for tapestries.

Futurism.

Das Neue Leben group.

After studying at the École des Beaux-Arts in Geneva Bailly worked in Munich and Naples. In 1906, she settled in Paris for a while, returning to Switzerland in 1914. Work by her was exhibited at the Salon d'Automne (1909, 1926), the Salon des Tuileries (1928) and at the Salon des Indépendants (1929). In 1934 her work was also shown at the exhibition ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1894, in Innsbruck; died 1965, in Rome.

Painter, pastellist, draughtsman, engraver, collage artist. Frescoes.

Futurism.

Roberto Marcello Iras Baldessari settled in Venice in 1908 and studied at the Accademia, graduating in 1915. He knew the Ca' Pesaro artists, then joined the Florence Futurist group between ...

Article

Ester Coen

(b Reggio Calabria, Oct 19, 1882; d Sorte, Verona, Aug 17, 1916).

Italian sculptor, painter, printmaker and writer. As one of the principal figures of Futurism, he helped shape the movement’s revolutionary aesthetic as a theorist as well as through his art. In spite of the brevity of his life, his concern with dynamism of form and with the breakdown of solid mass in his sculpture continued to influence other artists long after his death.

Boccioni spent his childhood years in Forlì, Genoa and Padua, then finished his studies in Catania and began to involve himself with literature. In 1899 he moved to Rome, where he developed a passionate interest in painting and frequented the Scuola Libera del Nudo. In Rome he met Gino Severini, with whom he made visits to the studio of Giacomo Balla, who taught them the basic principles of the divisionist technique and encouraged them to experiment with the application of colour in small overlapping brushstrokes. Inspired by his own pictorial experiments, Balla also urged them to develop a compositional method using angles and foreshortening analogous to photographic techniques. It was Balla who first introduced them to the use of complementary colours, which Boccioni later expressed in increasingly dramatic and violent ways, and it was Balla who instilled in him the love of landscape and nature that remained a constant feature of all his painting. In his first years of activity, closely following his master’s teaching, Boccioni produced oil paintings, sketches, pastels, studies in tempera and advertising posters....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 15 February 1900, in Florence.

Painter, draughtsman, ceramicist, lithographer, monotype artist.

Borsi became interested in painting from 1916 and participated in the Futurist movement while studying to be a goldsmith. In 1920, he moved to Scandinavia where he lived for five years, working in interior design and studying ceramics. His work was exhibited in Copenhagen. In ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 11 February 1881, in Quargnento (Alessandria); died 13 April 1966, in Milan.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, collage artist, engraver (including etching), lithographer, decorative designer, art theorist. Landscapes, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, seascapes. Frescoes.

Futurism, Pittura Metafiscia (Metaphysical Painting), Novecento Italiano, Magic Realism...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 16 October 1900, in Florence; died 1987, in Fiesole.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, screen printer, scenographer.

Futurism.

Lacerba Group.

Primo Conti was a poet, painter and musician. While in his teens, he joined the Lacerba group, who exhibited in 1913 in Florence. He then participated in Futurist events at the Verdi Theatre in Florence in 1913, and in Milan in 1918. He met Picasso in Rome in 1917, and also met Balla. That same year he published a volume of prose poetry entitled ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 19 May 1898, in Rome; died 1974.

Painter, engraver (wood).

Futurism, Dadaism.

Evola was initially part of the Futurist movement, but in 1918 he came into contact with Tristan Tzara and the Dada group in Zurich. He then joined the Dada movement, just as many Futurists were being influenced by the ideas expressed by Mussolini. He wrote two books in the ...

Article

Ester Coen and John Musgrove

Italian movement, literary in origin, that grew to embrace painting, sculpture, photography and architecture, which was launched by the publication on 20 February 1909 of ‘Le Futurisme’ by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti in the Paris newspaper Le Figaro. Marinetti’s intention was to reject the past, to revolutionize culture and make it more modern. The new ideology of Futurism set itself with violent enthusiasm against the weighty inheritance of an art tied to the Italian cultural tradition and exalted the idea of an aesthetic generated by the modern myth of the machine and of speed.

Marinetti laid the foundations of the new literary poetics in his first manifesto, written in late 1908. Every new creation or action, he wrote, was now based on the ‘beauty of speed’; museums, libraries, ‘venerated’ cities and academies had to be destroyed, as they belonged to traditional culture. An art born of progress was now to take the place of all the artistic forms of the past, even the most recent ones, because they were stale and static. These words were immediately taken up by a group of young painters based in Milan—...

Article

Anthony Parton

(Sergeyevna)

(b Negayevo, Tula Province, June 16, 1881: d Paris, Oct 17, 1962).

Russian painter, stage designer, printmaker and illustrator. She was a leading artist of the Russian avant-garde in the early 20th century but became a celebrity in the West through her work for Serge (de) Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. During the 1920s she played a significant role within the Ecole de Paris and continued to live and work in France until her death.

She was the daughter of Sergey Mikhaylovich Goncharov, an architect, and Yekaterina Il’icha Belyayeva but grew up in her grandmother’s home at Ladyzhino, near Kaluga, in Tula Province. She attended the Fourth Gymnasium for Girls in Moscow and in 1898 entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture as a sculpture student where she was taught by Paolo Troubetskoy. At the school Goncharova became friendly with Mikhail Larionov. He became her lifelong companion and colleague, and he encouraged her to relinquish sculpture for painting. Goncharova’s early work comprised mainly pastels, which were exhibited in ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1953, in Leningrad.

Book artist, printmaker (lithography), graphic artist.

Mikhail Karasik graduated with an art-graphics degree from the Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute. He is credited with pioneering the form of the artists’ book in Russia. Not only did he make them, he also encouraged his contemporaries to do so as well by curating numerous exhibitions and organising collective books, for example the ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1904, in Venice; died 1988, in Rovereto.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver (etching), sculptor (including wood/bronze). Landscapes, seascapes.

Futurism.

Giovanni Korompay studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice. He collaborated on the daily Il Resto del Carlino, and was the husband of the Futurist artist Magda Falchetto. He was interested in Futurism as early as ...

Article

Jaroslav Sedlář

(b Vlčkovice, nr Hradec Králové, Aug 21, 1884; d Prague, Nov 27, 1918).

Bohemian painter, printmaker and draughtsman. He studied at the School of Applied Arts in Prague, but left in 1906 to study at the Reale Istituto di Belle Arti in Florence. In the same year, with Emil Filla and Antonin Procházka among others, he founded Eight, the, a group of artists who felt the need of innovation in their art, as exemplified by Cubism and German Expressionism. In 1909 and 1910 he visited Paris. During the next two years he exhibited with the Neue Sezession in Berlin and in 1913 in Düsseldorf. His work evolved rapidly from Impressionism, Expressionism and a specific kind of Cubism to Italian Futurism.

The young Kubišta was strongly affected by the work of Munch exhibited in Prague in 1905. Until 1910 he worked in an Expressionist style, which brought him closer to the German painters associated with Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. The first notable example of this period was ...

Article

Anthony Parton

(Fyodorovich)

(b Tiraspol, Moldova, June 3, 1881; d Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, May 10, 1964).

Russian painter, stage designer, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman and writer of Moldovan birth. He was a leader of the Russian avant-garde before World War I but came to prominence in the West through his work for Serge Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. During the 1920s he played a significant role within the Ecole de Paris and continued to live and work in France until his death.

He was the son of Fyodor Mikhailovich Larionov, a doctor and pharmacist, and Aleksandra Fyodorovna Petrovskaya, but he grew up in his grandparents’ home in Tiraspol. He completed his secondary education at the Voskresensky Technical High School in Moscow and in 1898 entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Here he studied under Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin, and he also became friendly with Natal’ya Goncharova who was to remain his lifelong companion and colleague. Larionov’s work soon caught the imagination of collectors and critics. In ...

Article

Troels Andersen

(Severinovich)

(b Kiev, Feb 26, 1878; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], May 15, 1935).

Russian painter, printmaker, decorative artist and writer of Ukranian birth. One of the pioneers of abstract art, Malevich was a central figure in a succession of avant-garde movements during the period of the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and immediately after. The style of severe geometric abstraction with which he is most closely associated, Suprematism (see fig.), was a leading force in the development of Constructivism, the repercussions of which continued to be felt throughout the 20th century. His work was suppressed in Soviet Russia in the 1930s and remained little known during the following two decades. The reassessment of his reputation in the West from the mid-1950s was matched by the renewed influence of his work on the paintings of Ad Reinhardt and on developments such as Zero, Hard-edge painting and Minimalism.

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 23 February 1878, in the Kiev region; died 15 May 1935, in Leningrad (now St Petersburg).

Painter (including gouache), draughtsman, printmaker, decorative artist, writer. Stage sets.

Symbolism, Cubo-Futurism, Constructivism, Suprematism, Non-Objectivity, Abstract Art.

Oslinyy Khvost (Donkey’s Tail), Bubnovy Valet (Jack of Diamonds), Soyuz Molodezhi (Union of Youth), INKhUK (Institute of Artistic Culture)...

Article

Piero Pacini

(b Bologna, July 20, 1890; d Bologna, June 18, 1964).

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. At the age of 17 he enrolled at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna and discovered contemporary art in books on Impressionism, Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat and Henri Rousseau. He read with interest the articles by Ardengo Soffici in La voce and saw the Venice Biennale of 1910, where he first came across the painting of Auguste Renoir. During this period he often went to Florence to study the works of Giotto, Masaccio and Paolo Uccello. Between 1911 and 1914, when he was in Rome, he was impressed by the work of Claude Monet and, especially, Paul Cézanne. At the Futurist exhibition Lacerba, held in the Libreria Gonnelli, Florence, in 1913–14, he met Umberto Boccioni. Shortly afterwards he showed his first paintings at the Albergo Baglioni in Bologna and the Galleria Sprovieri in Rome. When he was not painting, he taught drawing in primary schools. As an adolescent he associated with those most receptive to new ideas in Bologna, including the painter Osvaldo Licini and the writer Mario Bacchelli. In ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 28 April 1895, in Florence; died 1957, in Ivrea (Piedmont).

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes.

Futurism, Novecento Italiano.

Strapaese Group.

Ottone Rosai was introduced to the art of wood sculpting by his father, and also studied drawing at the institute of decorative arts, and then at the fine arts school in Florence, where he later became a teacher. His work featured in both group and solo exhibitions, notably in Pistoia in 1911, in Florence in 1913, in Rome in 1922, in 1929 at the second Novecento exhibition, in 1952 at the Biennale exhibition in Venice, and in 1957 at the Olivetti centre in Ivrea. His work featured in group exhibitions held at, notably, the Palazzo Strozzi in Florence in 1960, at the Modern Art Museum in Turin in 1963, and at an exhibition entitled ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, female.

Born 21 June 1886, in Malenki; died 8 November 1918, in Moscow.

Painter, collage artist, draughtswoman, engraver, poet.

Futurism, Suprematism.

Groups: Soiuz Molodezhi (Union of Youth), Supremus.

Ol’ga Vladimirovna Rozanova studied at the Stroganov School of Art and Industry in Moscow. She was one of the most active members of the St Petersburg avant-garde. In ...

Article

Ester Coen

(b Portogruaro, Venice, April 30, 1885; d Cerro di Laveno, Varese, Feb 6, 1947).

Italian painter, printmaker, writer and composer. The fourth of five children, he was trained in music by his father, who was a clockmaker and organist. In 1901 he went to Milan to join his family, who had moved there so that his two brothers, Giovanni and Antonio, could study music at the conservatory. Diverging from his father’s inclinations, Luigi was attracted towards other forms of art, especially painting. Though not actually enrolled at the Accademia di Brera, through new friends he indirectly followed the ideas taught there. In the same period he worked for the restorer Crivelli in Milan, serving his apprenticeship working on the interior decorations of the Castello Sforzesco and on Leonardo’s Last Supper in the refectory of S Maria delle Grazie. In December 1909 he took part in the exhibition Bianco e nero at the Famiglia Artistica in Milan, contributing a series of etchings, made during the preceding year, which show a definite leaning towards Symbolist forms and images. The undulating quality of the line in such etchings as his portrait of ...