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Article

Greta Stroeh

[Jean] (Peter Wilhelm)

(b Strassburg, Germany [now Strasbourg, France], Sept 16, 1886; d Basle, Switzerland, June 7, 1966).

French sculptor, painter, collagist, printmaker, and poet of German birth. The son of a German father and French Alsatian mother, he developed a cosmopolitan outlook from an early age and as a mature artist maintained close contact with the avant-garde throughout Europe. He was a pioneer of abstract art and one of the founders of Dada in Zurich, but he also participated actively in both Surrealism and Constructivism. While he prefigured junk art and the Fluxus movement in his incorporation of waste material, it was through his investigation of biomorphism and of chance and accident that he proved especially influential on later 20th-century art in liberating unconscious creative forces.

Following a brief period at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Strasbourg (1900–01), Arp received instruction from 1901 from a friend and neighbour, the painter and printmaker Georges Ritleng (1875–1972). He then attended the Kunstschule in Weimar (1904–7) and the Académie Julian in Paris (...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 27 November 1937, in Buenos Aires.

Installation artist, painter, draughtsman, sculptor, photographer, mixed media.

Neo-Constructivism.

Cafone was a student at the school of art in Buenos Aires and at the Slade School in London. A sculptor who abandoned his sculptor's tools very early on, he looked to drawing as a medium through which to find an equivalent, a medium in which he proved to have astonishing dexterity. His paintings employ mixed media, incorporating sheets of lead, for example. Harking back to his work as an installation sculptor, he also took the venue in which he was exhibiting into account, if needs be creating certain works directly onto the walls of the gallery. If a certain preciousness of materials, and in particular the ornamental details, are set aside, there is a relationship here between Cofone's work and Minimalism, given their common refusal to attach any meaning to the completed object other than the one that defines - in the most material terms possible - its physical relationship with the artist who has created it, not in his image, but on his scale....

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Born 21 March 1887, in Érsekujvár; died 1967, in Budapest.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, graphic designer, engraver, collage artist, sculptor.

Dadaism, Constructivism.

Lajos Kassák ran away from home aged 13. He started his working life as a blacksmith and locksmith. He came into contact with the workers' movement and contributed to the Social Democrat magazine ...

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 4 January 1895 , in Rŭjiena, Latvia; died 26 February 1938 , in Moscow

Painter, collage artist, photomontage artist, poster artist, lithographer, sculptor.

Constructivism, Vhutemas, Productivism, Suprematism.

Unovis, October.

Gustav Klucis studied at the City Art School in Riga (1913-1915), then at the school of design under the aegis of the Imperial Society for the Fostering of Art (1915-1917) in Petrograd (now St Petersburg). He completed his training at Vasily Meshkov’s school of design and painting, Il’ya Mashkov’s studio in the State Free Art Studio (Svoma) in Moscow, and the higher artistic and technical workshops (Vkhutemas) under the direction of Kazimir Malevich and Antoine Pevsner. An associate member of the INKhUK (Institute of Artistic Culture) productivist group in Moscow from 1921 to 1925, he taught courses at the Vkhutemas from 1924 to 1930. He was a founder member of the October group in 1928....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 10 February 1923, in Paris; died 1983, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, collage artist, sculptor, draughtsman, engraver. Designs for tapestries.

Neo-Constructivism.

Mennessons followed courses in history and art from 1946. He made contact with Henri Laurens and Albert Gleizes, becoming a student of the latter for two years and working in his studio. When Gleizes died, Mennessons was forced to return to Paris in reduced circumstances. He travelled to Germany and Switzerland many times in the 1970s. From ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in the United States from 1937.

Born 20 July 1895 , in Bácsbarsód or Bács-Borsód; died 24 November 1946 , in Chicago.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, photomontage artist, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic designer, typographer, photographer (photogrammes), filmmaker. Stage sets.

Constructivism, Op Art, Kinetic Art Bauhaus...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active from 1933 active in England.

Born 13 June 1899, in Budapest; died 1967, in London.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, sculptor. Architectural integration.

Constructivism.

MA Group, Artists' International Association.

Laszlo Peri was a mason in Budapest and studied architecture there. He spent time in Vienna and Paris in 1919, and Russia in 1920, before settling in 1921 in Berlin for 13 years. There he worked as an architect for the municipal council. When Hitler came to power in 1933, he moved to London, where he worked as a painter, graphic designer and architect, taking the name Peter Peri. From 1918 to 1920 he produced designs influenced by Central European Expressionism. From 1921 he was with his compatriot Moholy-Nagy in Berlin; he joined the Constructivist movement and was a co-signatory, with Erno Kallai, Moholy-Nagy and Kemeny, of a manifesto on Constructivism in the Berlin magazine ...

Article

Croat, 20th century, male.

Born 1924, in Okucani.

Sculptor, painter (mixed media), engraver.

Neo-Constructivism, Op Art.

Exat 51 Group.

From 1943 to 1946 Yvan Picelj was a student at the fine arts academy in Zagreb where he settled. After his time at the academy, he made study trips to France, Sweden, Italy, Belgium and the USA. In ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 23 December 1891 , in St Petersburg; died 3 December 1956 , in Moscow.

Painter (including mixed media/gouache), sculptor, draughtsman, watercolourist, designer, collage artist, photographer, photomontage artist, filmmaker.

Constructivism, Productivism.

Vkhutemas.

Aleksandr Rodchenko trained at Kazan Art School in 1908, where he met Varvara Fedorovna Stepanova, with whom he would work and whom he later married. In 1912, he also attended the Stroganov Art Institute in Moscow. While he was growing up, Russia was in turmoil, poised on the brink of revolution, and the arts were in an unparalleled creative ferment. By 1905, probably as a result of the revolution that year, writers and artists were seeking new solutions for the new world in which they lived. In 1909, Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova founded their own movement, which they called Rayonism ( ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1899; died 1982.

Sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, photomontage artist. Stage sets.

Constructivism.

Vladimir's path is inseparable from that of his brother Georgiy, up until the latter's death in 1933. They were the sons of a Swedish painter who took on Russian citizenship. From ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, female.

Active in France from 1928.

Born 19 January 1889, in Davos; died 13 January 1943, in Zurich.

Painter (including gouache), draughtswoman, watercolourist, collage artist, sculptor, designer. Designs for stained glass, marionettes.

Dadaism, Constructivism.

Groups: Zurich Dadaist, Das Neue Leben, Cercle et Carré, Abstraction-Création, Die Allianz...

Article

Ukrainian, 20th century, male.

Born 16 December 1885, in Kharkov; died 31 May 1953, in Moscow.

Painter, sculptor, assemblage artist. Stage sets.

Constructivism, Kinetic Art.

Groups: Bubnovy Valet (Jack of Diamonds), Soyuz Molodezhi (Union of Youth), Oslinyy Khvost (Donkey's Tail).

Vladimir Tatlin's father was an engineer and his mother a poet. He dropped out of school to join the navy, travelling to Egypt and the East. On his return, he gave private lessons while studying at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, and the Penza Institute. In 1909 or 1910, he spent the summer at Tiraspol with Larionov, whom he had already known for a time, but was so short of money that he had to join a local circus as a wrestler. In 1913 he toured Paris, Morocco, Syria, Turkey and Berlin, where he took part in the Russian folklore festival, singing Russian popular songs and accompanying himself on the bandura, a stringed instrument of Tatar origin. (Many years later, in 1962, Pavel Mansurov told Michel Seuphor that the famous bass Fedor Shaliapin had tears in his eyes when listening to Tatlin.) With the money he made in Berlin, Tatlin went to Paris to see the Cubists, and above all Picasso, whose work he had already seen exhibited in Moscow. He then returned to Moscow, where he joined the Jack of Diamonds group (1912-1913) and the Union of Youth (1913-1914). He left Moscow for Leningrad in the 1920s....

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 1919, in Zurich; died 1986, in Zurich.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, photomontage artist.

Neo-Constructivism.

Concrete Art Group of Zurich.

Vivarelli attended the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of arts and crafts) in Zurich, as well as Paul Colin's private studio in Paris. In ...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in Andijk.

Sculptor, sculptor of assemblages, painter. Architectural integration.

Neo-Constructivism.

Volten worked as a painter and lived in the north of Amsterdam in the industrial district. It was among the workers that he learned to forge, rivet and weld metal after which he launched into sculpture in ...