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Article

Greta Stroeh

[Jean] (Peter Wilhelm)

(b Strassburg, Germany [now Strasbourg, France], Sept 16, 1886; d Basle, Switzerland, June 7, 1966).

French sculptor, painter, collagist, printmaker, and poet of German birth. The son of a German father and French Alsatian mother, he developed a cosmopolitan outlook from an early age and as a mature artist maintained close contact with the avant-garde throughout Europe. He was a pioneer of abstract art and one of the founders of Dada in Zurich, but he also participated actively in both Surrealism and Constructivism. While he prefigured junk art and the Fluxus movement in his incorporation of waste material, it was through his investigation of biomorphism and of chance and accident that he proved especially influential on later 20th-century art in liberating unconscious creative forces.

Following a brief period at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Strasbourg (1900–01), Arp received instruction from 1901 from a friend and neighbour, the painter and printmaker Georges Ritleng (1875–1972). He then attended the Kunstschule in Weimar (1904–7) and the Académie Julian in Paris (...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Liège; died 1995.

Painter, collage artist, watercolourist, illustrator, decorative designer, designer.

Futurism, Constructivism.

Groupe 7 Arts.

Baugniet attended the art academy in Brussels where he studied under the Belgian Symbolist painter Jean Delville. He married the dancer and painter Akarova (Marguerite Acarin). His early paintings were figurative, and he was then influenced by French Cubism and international Constructivism. In 1922, Baugniet became a member of the Belgian group ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 3 July 1923, in Aarschot; died 9 April 1988, in Middelkerke.

Collage artist.

Neo-Constructivism.

Emiel Bergen was a student at the academy of fine arts in Louvain and became an eminent historian of Constructivism, writing studies on Moholy-Nagy, Mondrian, Albers, Max Bill and others. He produced collages with aluminium elements ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 20 October 1896, in Paderborn; died 8 August 1971, in Schmelz.

Painter, collage artist.

Constructivism.

From 1915 to 1918, Ella Bergmann studied at the academy of fine arts in Weimar, where she married her fellow student Robert Michel in 1919...

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Born 1903, in Warsaw; died 1975, in Warsaw.

Collage artist, photomontage artist.

Constructivism.

Mieczyslaw Berman studied in Warsaw and produced political work intended to be a vehicle for the Polish Communist Party's propaganda. He was influenced by the political photomontages resulting from Russian Constructivism and also by John Heartfield. After his works had been almost entirely destroyed, he made a few replicas after ...

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Born 1907, in Warsaw; died 1957, in Cracow.

Painter, collage artist, photomontage artist.

Neo-Constructivism.

Janus-Maria Brzesky trained in Poznan, Italy and in Paris. Upon his return to Poznan in 1929-1930, he produced his first collages, then practiced photography, from which he created photomontages. He also created avant-garde films: ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1890, in Hanover; died 1964, in Hanover.

Painter, collage artist.

Constructivism.

Groups: Novembergruppe, Cercle et Carré, Abstraction-Création, Phases.

Carl Buchheister studied in Hanover and Berlin before leaving for the 1914-1918 war. He taught himself painting and started to paint seriously from ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 23 September 1955, in Paris.

Painter, collage artist, illustrator. Landscapes, nudes.

Neo-Constructivism.

Louis Chagnon taught history and geography from 1987 to 1995, before taking up painting full-time. He was awarded the Prix Artcolle at the 6th Salon de Collage Contemporain, in Paris in ...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 15 December 1896, in Berlin; died 13 March 1983, in Wassenaar (The Hague).

Painter, collage artist, photomontage artist.

Dadaism, Constructivism.

Having studied at a school of painting and fine arts in Berlin, Paul Citroen abandoned painting in 1914 to become a bookseller. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 27 November 1937, in Buenos Aires.

Installation artist, painter, draughtsman, sculptor, photographer, mixed media.

Neo-Constructivism.

Cafone was a student at the school of art in Buenos Aires and at the Slade School in London. A sculptor who abandoned his sculptor's tools very early on, he looked to drawing as a medium through which to find an equivalent, a medium in which he proved to have astonishing dexterity. His paintings employ mixed media, incorporating sheets of lead, for example. Harking back to his work as an installation sculptor, he also took the venue in which he was exhibiting into account, if needs be creating certain works directly onto the walls of the gallery. If a certain preciousness of materials, and in particular the ornamental details, are set aside, there is a relationship here between Cofone's work and Minimalism, given their common refusal to attach any meaning to the completed object other than the one that defines - in the most material terms possible - its physical relationship with the artist who has created it, not in his image, but on his scale....

Article

Romanian, 20th century, female.

Active in Argentina from 1940 and in France from 1961; naturalised in 1981 in France.

Born 27 November 1923, in Bucharest.

Painter, engraver, ceramicist, collage artist. Figures, landscapes. Designs for stained glass.

Neo-Constructivism, Symbolism.

Simona Ertan took classes in drawing, painting and linoleum engraving in Bucharest from 1934 to 1940. At the end of 1940 she left with her family for Argentina and settled in Buenos Aires. There, while continuing to paint, she took classes in aesthetics and pottery. In 1950, her encounter with Picasso's ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Born 21 March 1887, in Érsekujvár; died 1967, in Budapest.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, graphic designer, engraver, collage artist, sculptor.

Dadaism, Constructivism.

Lajos Kassák ran away from home aged 13. He started his working life as a blacksmith and locksmith. He came into contact with the workers' movement and contributed to the Social Democrat magazine ...

Article

Éva Bajkay

(b Ersekujvar, Hungary, March 21, 1887; d Budapest, July 22, 1967).

Hungarian writer, painter, theorist, collagist, designer, printmaker and draughtsman. His family moved to Budapest in 1904, and, after finishing an apprenticeship as a blacksmith, in 1908 he began publishing stories and poems. In 1909–10 he travelled across Western Europe and spent some time in Paris, becoming acquainted with modern art and anarchist ideas. He published short stories, plays and poems in Budapest and from November 1915 he edited the periodical A Tett (‘The deed’), which was anti-militarist and discussed socialist theories and avant-garde ideas. In summer 1916 he spent time in the Kecskemét artists’ colony with his brother-in-law Béla Uitz and under his influence executed his first ink drawings (e.g. Landscape, 1916; Budapest, N.G.). Progressive young artists and aesthetes grouped themselves around Kassák; after A Tett was banned in September 1916, he started in November a new periodical, MA (‘Today’; see MA group), which he edited with Uitz (to ...

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 4 January 1895 , in Rŭjiena, Latvia; died 26 February 1938 , in Moscow

Painter, collage artist, photomontage artist, poster artist, lithographer, sculptor.

Constructivism, Vhutemas, Productivism, Suprematism.

Unovis, October.

Gustav Klucis studied at the City Art School in Riga (1913-1915), then at the school of design under the aegis of the Imperial Society for the Fostering of Art (1915-1917) in Petrograd (now St Petersburg). He completed his training at Vasily Meshkov’s school of design and painting, Il’ya Mashkov’s studio in the State Free Art Studio (Svoma) in Moscow, and the higher artistic and technical workshops (Vkhutemas) under the direction of Kazimir Malevich and Antoine Pevsner. An associate member of the INKhUK (Institute of Artistic Culture) productivist group in Moscow from 1921 to 1925, he taught courses at the Vkhutemas from 1924 to 1930. He was a founder member of the October group in 1928....

Article

Éva Bajkay

(b Beszterce [now Bistriţa, Romania], Dec 1, 1908; d Budapest, Aug 17, 1984).

Hungarian painter, printmaker, collagist, teacher and experimental film maker. In 1921 he attended the Artur Podolni-Volkmann private school in Budapest, and in 1923 he spent a year in Holland. He attended the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest (1925–30), exhibiting in a group show in 1930 with artists associated with Lajos Kassák’s Work Circle (Munka-kört). After a period in Paris and Holland in 1930, he worked at the Szentendre colony in a Constructivist-Surrealist style similar to that of Lajos Vajda, drawing upon local and folk art motifs (e.g. Szentendre Motif, 1935; Budapest, N.G.), and the musical theory of Béla Bartók. Korniss fought in World War II, returning from a prisoner-of-war camp in 1945. He went on to make small monotypes of rooftops (e.g. Illuminations, c. 1946; Budapest, N.G.). In 1946 he joined the European School, and in 1947–8 he taught at the School of Crafts and Design, Budapest. His work became abstract and geometric, although symbolic meaning is conveyed in the most effective works (e.g. ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 10 February 1923, in Paris; died 1983, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, collage artist, sculptor, draughtsman, engraver. Designs for tapestries.

Neo-Constructivism.

Mennessons followed courses in history and art from 1946. He made contact with Henri Laurens and Albert Gleizes, becoming a student of the latter for two years and working in his studio. When Gleizes died, Mennessons was forced to return to Paris in reduced circumstances. He travelled to Germany and Switzerland many times in the 1970s. From ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Lugano.

Collage artist, draughtsman.

Neo-Constructivism.

.Gianni Metalli's work is characterised by his perceptive arrangement of elementary geometric forms: circles, lines and rectangles. His work has featured in group exhibitions since 1960, notably at the fine arts museum in Argau in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 27 February 1897, in Vockenhausen, near Eppstein (Taunus); died 1983.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist.

Constructivism.

Robert Michel returned from military service in 1917 and studied in Weimar, where he met the painter Ella Bergmann, whom he married in 1919, the year the Bauhaus opened in Weimar. They settled in Schmelz, painting together and mutually influencing each other. From 1932 to 1945, Michel was inactive as a painter, having been placed on the proscribed list by the National Socialist regime; during this period, he lived in Vockenhausen, where he worked as a fish merchant and hydro-engineer....

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in the United States from 1937.

Born 20 July 1895 , in Bácsbarsód or Bács-Borsód; died 24 November 1946 , in Chicago.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, photomontage artist, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic designer, typographer, photographer (photogrammes), filmmaker. Stage sets.

Constructivism, Op Art, Kinetic Art Bauhaus...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in the USA.

Born 26 July 1937, in Rio de Janeiro; died 1980, in Rio de Janeiro.

Painter, installation artist.

Neo-Constructivism, Conceptual Art.

In 1954, Oiticica entered the school of the museum of modern art in Rio de Janeiro. He and his brother Cesar, who became an architect, studied there with Ivan Serpa. He was soon moving in avant-garde circles and he joined the group ...