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German, 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Elbing (now Elblag, Poland).

Painter, architect.

Alfred Arndt was mainly active at the Bauhaus, where he studied architecture and mural painting before becoming a teacher of interior design in 1929. He lost his construction rights in 1933 during the Third Reich, but was later appointed architect of public works in Jena in ...



Rainer K. Wick

[Bauhaus Berlin; Bauhaus Dessau, Hochschule für Gestaltung; Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar]

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or masons’ lodges. The school re-established workshop training, as opposed to impractical academic studio education. Its contribution to the development of Functionalism in architecture was widely influential. It exemplified the contemporary desire to form unified academies incorporating art colleges, colleges of arts and crafts and schools of architecture, thus promoting a closer cooperation between the practice of ‘fine’ and ‘applied’ art and architecture. The origins of the school lay in attempts in the 19th and early 20th centuries to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution. According to Walter Gropius in ...


Monica Bohm-Duchen

(b Haag, Austria, April 5, 1900; d Santa Barbara, CA, Sept 30, 1985).

American painter, designer, photographer and typographer, of Austrian birth. After serving in the Austrian army (1917–18), Bayer studied architecture under Professor Schmidthammer in Linz in 1919 and in 1920 worked with the architect Emanuel Margold in Darmstadt. From 1921 to 1923 he attended the Bauhaus in Weimar, studying mural painting (with Vasily Kandinsky) and typography; it was at this time that he created the Universal alphabet, consisting only of lowercase letters. In 1925 he returned to the Bauhaus, then in Dessau, as a teacher of advertising, layout and typography, remaining there until 1928. For the next ten years he was based in Berlin as a commercial artist: he worked as art manager of Vogue (1929–30) and as director of the Dorland advertising agency. Shortly after his first one-man exhibitions at the Galerie Povolotski, Paris, and at the Kunstlerbund März, Linz (both 1929), he created photomontages of a Surrealist nature, such as ...


German, 20th century, male.

Born 1897, in Hofgeismars; died 1968, at the abbey of Maria-Laach.


Theodor Bogler studied architecture and art history in Munich after World Was I, then spent time at the Bauhaus from 1919-1925. He went on to direct the arts and crafts department of a sandstone factory near Berlin. He took holy orders at the Maria Laach abbey in ...


Daniela De Dominicis

(b Rome, Jan 28, 1935; d Marseille, Sept 21, 1963).

Italian painter, sculptor and urban planner. In 1955 he obtained his diploma at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome and began studying architecture, heavily influenced by Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus and De Stijl. He started work as an industrial designer in 1958. He also began to execute works devoted to the study of the dynamic qualities of light in space, which some people have seen as a forerunner of conceptual art and Minimalism. Lo Savio’s first monochrome paintings, based on the study of chromatic transparency, date from 1959 (e.g. Space-Light, Leverkusen, Schloss Morsbroich) as do his Filters series, which comprised layers of opaque and semi-transparent paper squares and circles. Works of this sort were shown in the same year in a group exhibition with Franco Angeli, Tano Festa, Mario Schifano (b 1934) and Giuseppe Uncini at the Galleria L’Appunto in Rome, and in 1960 at the Galleria La Salita in Rome with an exhibition catalogue prefaced by the French critic ...


German, 20th century, male.

Born 1907, in Leipzig; died 1964, in Berlin.

Painter, designer.

Neidenberger studied scenography at the school of applied arts in Leipzig, and learned mural painting and architectural decoration at the Bauhaus from 1929 to 1932. He was one of the many Bauhaus pupils who was attracted to a career in the applied arts. From ...


Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1936.

Born 1904, in Basel; died 1979, in Locarno.

Painter. Landscapes. Stage sets.

Xanti Schawinsky trained as an architect before studying at the Bauhaus from 1924 to 1929, following various disciplines (painting, design, photography, graphics and, above all, theatre). He worked as a decorator/set designer in Magdeburg (1929-1933) and in Italy (1933-1936). At the urging of Josef Albers, Schawinsky emigrated to the USA in 1936 and taught painting at Black Mountain College in North Carolina while continuing to hone his own personal style and technique. From 1938 he devoted himself entirely to painting and from 1961 divided his time between the USA and Switzerland, where he painted mountain landscapes and completed his series entitled ...