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Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1897, in Salzburg; died 1955, in Linz.

Draughtsman, engraver.

Baschant studied in Essen and Frankfurt am Main and then at the Bauhaus, from 1921 to 1924, in the engraving studio. He subsequently travelled and painted. He studied the art of book illustration in Leipzig in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1905, in Velbert (Rhineland); died 1986, in Wuppertal.

Painter, engraver, sculptor, watercolourist, photographer.

From 1929 to 1931, Batz studied sculpture at the Bauhaus School (school of design founded by Walter Gropius). He also studied painting under Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee. Staying for a time in France and Switzerland, from ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 July 1906, in Munich; died 9 November 1972, in Paris.

Painter, engraver. Figures, nudes, portraits, landscapes, seascapes.

Paul Braig studied in Munich and from 1923 to 1924 at the Bauhaus in Dessau under Kandinsky and Klee. He then spent time in Florence where he discovered Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1899, in Canig, Germany; died 1985, in Reston (Virginia).

Painter, printmaker, collage artist. Still-lifes, landscapes.

After serving in the front lines during World War I, Werner Drewes was admitted to the Bauhaus in 1921 where he studied under Klee and Münch. A restless traveller across many continents, he emigrated with his family to the US when Hitler came to power. In New York, he took his place alongside Mondrian and Feininger in the group of American Abstract Artists. He taught at Columbia University, worked on the design of the Worlds Fair Building in ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 12 February 1902, in Alba (Piedmont); died 13 November 1964, in Alba.

Painter, monotype artist, mixed media.

Lettrism.

International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus, Situationist International.

Originally a pharmacist, Gallizio was passionate about archaeology, ethnology and geology, and was a local councillor in his home town of Alba. He did not begin to paint until he was 53 years old. His friendship with Asger Jorn and the painter Piero Simondo inspired him to turn his pastille factory in Alba into the first 'Experimental Laboratory' of the ...

Article

Anna Rowland

(b Frankfurt am Main, July 11, 1893; d Sydney, Jan 7, 1965).

German painter, printmaker and teacher, active in England and Australia. From 1912 to 1914 he attended the progressive school run by Wilhelm von Debschitz in Munich and studied art history at Munich University. His training was then interrupted for four and a half years by military service. In 1919 he enrolled at Adolf Hölzel’s pioneering academy in Stuttgart. Hölzel communicated to his pupils, who also included Johannes Itten and Oskar Schlemmer, his interest in abstract formal relationships and colour contrasts. At this time Hirschfeld-Mack is known to have been working in the style of the German Expressionists.

In October 1919, attracted by Walter Gropius’s Bauhaus Manifesto, Hirschfeld-Mack enrolled at the Weimar Bauhaus. After taking the Vorkurs devised by Itten, he enrolled in the printing workshop, where he soon emerged as one of the most important apprentices. He worked closely with the Form Master, Lyonel Feininger, helping to prepare Zwölf Holzschnitte von Lyonel Feininger...

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 3 April 1914, in Veirum or Vejrum (Jutland); died 1 May 1973, in Aarhus.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, collage artist, sculptor, lithographer, potter, draughtsman. Designs for tapestries.

Groups: International Situationist, CoBrA, International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus...

Article

Vivian Endicott Barnett

[Vassily; Wassily] (Vasil’yevich)

(b Moscow, Dec 4, 1866; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, Dec 13, 1944).

Russian painter, printmaker, stage designer, decorative artist and theorist. A central figure in the development of 20th-century art and specifically in the transition from representational to abstract art, Kandinsky worked in a wide variety of media and was an important teacher and theoretician. He worked mainly outside Russia, but his Russian heritage continued to be an important factor in his development.

Kandinsky grew up in Odessa and from 1886 to 1893 studied economics, ethnography and law in Moscow, where he wrote a dissertation on the legality of labourers’ wages. He married his cousin Anya Shemyakina in 1892 (divorced 1911). In 1896 Kandinsky decided to become an artist and went to Munich. There he studied from 1896 to 1898 at the art school of Anton Ažbe, where he met Alexei Jawlensky and Marianne von Werefkin, and then in 1900 at the Akademie with Franz von Stuck. The following year he was a co-founder of the ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany and Switzerland.

Born 18 December 1879, in Münchenbuchsee; died 29 June 1940, in Muralto, near Locarno.

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker, watercolourist.

Die Blaue Vier, Der Blaue Reiter, Bauhaus..

Paul Klee’s German father was a singing teacher, and his half-French, half-Swiss mother was also very musical. Klee himself played the violin and toyed with the idea of a career in music. In 1898, having hesitated between music and painting, he chose painting. He went to Munich, where he studied at Heinrich Knirr’s free academy (1898–1900). He then went to Franz von Stuck’s studio at the Munich Academy (1900–1901). In 1901, he travelled to Italy for the first time with the sculptor Hermann Haller. There he admired Roman architecture and sculpture, the ruins of Pompeii, the work of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, and the work of Raphael in the Stanze della Segnatura, although he preferred Leonardo da Vinci over both. In 1902, he settled in Bern, before moving to Munich in 1906, the year he married his wife, Lily Stumpf, a pianist. She earned their livelihood giving piano lessons, and the two gave small concerts for their own pleasure and that of their close friends, as well as attending many classical concerts at the city’s concert halls. He was only ever attracted to traditional classical music and did not like the music of the composers of the Vienna School, such as Arnold Schönberg or Alban Berg, although he knew them personally. During this period he admired Aubrey Beardsley and James Ensor....

Article

Ann Temkin

(b Münchenbuchsee, nr Berne, Dec 18, 1879; d Muralto, nr Locarno, June 29, 1940).

Swiss painter, draughtsman, printmaker, teacher, and writer. Klee’s work forms a major contribution to the history of 20th-century art. He is associated most commonly with the Bauhaus school in Weimar and Dessau. He is regarded as a major theoretician among modern artists and as a master of humour and mystery. In much of his work, he aspired to achieve a naive and untutored quality, but his art is also among the most cerebral of any of the 20th century (e.g. Disturbance, 1934; Turin, Gal. A. Mod.). Klee’s wide-ranging intellectual curiosity is evident in an art profoundly informed by structures and themes drawn from music, nature, and poetry.

Klee was brought up in Berne, where his father was a music teacher. As a boy, he displayed great talent both as a violinist and as a draughtsman. On leaving school he decided to study art in Munich, first with ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1910, in Emmerich.

Collage artist, painter (gouache), watercolourist, lithographer, graphic designer.

After an apprenticeship with a lithographer, Kurt Kranz was a student at the Bauhaus from 1930 to 1933, taking the preliminary course of Joseph Albers in the studios of Klee and Kandinsky. He became a professor in the Landeskunstschule in Hamburg, where he lived, in ...

Article

Martina Rudloff

(b Berlin, Feb 18, 1889; d Burgbrohl, nr Cologne, Nov 13, 1981).

German sculptor, potter, draughtsman and printmaker. He first sculpted animals while studying under Richard Scheibe (from 1907), and in 1910 modelled animals for the Schwarzburg Porcelain Factory. After World War I his interest in classicism gave way to the influence of Expressionism and of the Sturm artists, as part of a search for a new spirituality. This new style of work can be seen in Woman Suckling (gold-plated limewood relief, 1919; Bremen, Marcks-Haus). Walter Gropius, who founded the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1919, asked Marcks to establish a ceramics workshop for the school in the nearby village of Dornburg. With his students he set out to create a Bauhaus ceramics ethic of simplicity and honesty of design as determined by the materials used and the function of the object. In stylistic terms he combined geometry with a local pottery tradition. He was also inspired by Lyonel Feininger to make woodcuts of rural genre themes....

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 30 April 1928, in London. Died 22 May 2011.

Painter (including gouache), engraver, weaver, jeweller, sculptor.

Breon O'Casey, son of the Irish playwright Sean O'Casey, learned metalwork from ex-Bauhaus teacher Naum Slutski while attending Dartington Hall School near Totnes in Devon. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1 September 1896, in Weferlingen; died 1976, in Rome.

Painter, engraver.

Max Peiffer-Watenphül trained in weaving and pottery at the Bauhaus from 1919 to 1921, later taking up painting in Salzburg, where he lived most of the time. He went on study trips to France, Italy, the Balkans, North Africa, Cuba and Mexico. He won the Prix de Rome in 1931. From 1946 to 1958 he lived in Venice and produced a great many paintings of this city. He taught at the Folkwangschule in Essen, at the textile technical college in Krefeld and at the school of applied arts in Salzburg. He became a member of the Bavarian academy of science and art in Munich in 1965....

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Born 7 March 1896, in Máriakéménd.

Painter, engraver.

Henrik Stephan trained in Budapest, and worked at the Bauhaus in Weimar.

Article

Freya Probst

(b Bremen, April 15, 1900; d Stuttgart, May 28, 1990).

German industrial designer and printmaker. He began his artistic training as an apprentice in the design office of a Bremen silverware factory (1914–18) and attended lessons in script and drawing at the local Kunstgewerbeschule (1916–19). A grant enabled him to continue his studies at the famous Zeichenakademie in Hanau (1919–22), where he received a varied training including silversmithing, engraving, design and modelling. The graphic works that he produced in 1920–23 were probably made during a short stay in Bremen and at the Worpswede artists’ colony; they are mostly woodcuts and engravings with religious themes, for example Death and the Virgin (woodcut, 1921; Bremen, Focke-Mus.), motifs from everyday life and the world of work. These are mostly in a brittle style, expressing themes of destruction, hunger, pain, suffering and death. By 1923 the themes became more optimistic and were depicted with a soft voluminosity.

In ...