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Article

Colin Rhodes

(b Berlin, Oct 5, 1887; d Bad Liebenzell, nr Stuttgart, Nov 14, 1975).

German painter. He studied under Henry Van de Velde at the School of the Fine Arts and Arts and Crafts of the Grand Duchy of Saxony (later the Bauhaus, Weimar) (1906–7), and under Franz von Stuck at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich (1909–10). He worked under Adolf Hölzel at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Stuttgart from 1912, and by 1918 he had produced his first non-objective works under the influence of the latter. Although primarily an abstract painter he was briefly involved with Magic Realism in the 1920s. He devised a type of colour abstraction, which he called ‘Absolute Painting’, and in 1930 he founded a ‘Seminar for Absolute Painting’ at the Volkshochschule in Stuttgart. Works such as Painting XII (1949; Berlin, Alte N.G.) relied heavily on a body of theory derived mainly from Hölzel and the colour theories of Goethe.

L. Langenfeld...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active in England.

Born 1904, in Purkersdorf (Vienna).

Painter, draughtsman, decorative designer.

George Adams-Teltscher studied at the school of decorative arts in Vienna and then at the Bauhaus in Dessau from 1921 to 1923. Probably influenced by Oskar Schlemmer, he became a theatre decorator in Vienna in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in America.

Born 1909, in Dessau.

Painter.

Heinz Allner trained at the Bauhaus between 1927 and 1930, notably under Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky. He settled for a time in Paris in 1933, where he worked in graphic art and typography, disciplines he had acquired at the Bauhaus. He remained in Paris until ...

Article

Israeli, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Tuchow, Poland; died 18 June 1992.

Painter.

After receiving a classical grounding in the arts, Mordecai Ardon left Poland and studied at the Bauhaus from 1920 to 1925, working under the direction of Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee. He went on to study at the Kunstakademie in Munich. He then taught at the art school opened in Berlin by Johannes Itten. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Ardon sought refuge in Palestine where, in 1935, he was appointed to a teaching post at the Bezalel college of art in Jerusalem (of which he was to become the principal in 1940) and served as an adviser on the arts to the ministry of education and culture. As such, he played a determining role in the training of young Israeli artists....

Article

[Bronstein, Max]

(b Tuchów, Poland, July 13, 1896; d Jerusalem, June 18, 1992).

Israeli painter of Polish birth. As a young boy he greatly admired El Greco, Goya and Rembrandt. From 1920 to 1925 he studied at the Bauhaus, Weimar, under Klee, Kandinsky, Johannes Itten and Lyonel Feininger and the following year studied painting techniques at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich under Max Doerner. During the 1920s he changed his name from Max Bronstein to Mordecai Ardon. He taught at the Kunstschule Itten in Berlin from 1929 to 1933, when Nazi persecution forced him to flee to Jerusalem. Though he had been an active Communist in Germany, in Jerusalem he soon found a great affinity with Jewish religion and culture. In 1935 he was made a professor at the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts in Jerusalem, and was its Director from 1940 to 1952.

Ardon’s early paintings show the influence of Expressionism, as in Seated Woman in a Straw Chair...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Elbing (now Elblag, Poland).

Painter, architect.

Alfred Arndt was mainly active at the Bauhaus, where he studied architecture and mural painting before becoming a teacher of interior design in 1929. He lost his construction rights in 1933 during the Third Reich, but was later appointed architect of public works in Jena in ...

Article

Lithuanian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1908, in Vilnius; died 1995, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Theatre decoration.

Moses Bagel studied with Klee and Kandinsky at the Bauhaus around 1927. He created sets for the Yiddish theatre in Paris.

Nieszawer, Nadine/Boyé, Marie...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1924, in Milan; died 16 June 2003, in Vergiate, near Varese.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, illustrator.

Nuclear Movement, International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus.

After studying at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera from 1945 to 1948, and having gained a law degree, Baj devoted himself to art from 1950. The following year he began a career that has produced a variety of artistic creations always characterised by his fighting spirit, and has embraced a raft of different groups. He started by establishing the ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1897, in Salzburg; died 1955, in Linz.

Draughtsman, engraver.

Baschant studied in Essen and Frankfurt am Main and then at the Bauhaus, from 1921 to 1924, in the engraving studio. He subsequently travelled and painted. He studied the art of book illustration in Leipzig in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1905, in Velbert (Rhineland); died 1986, in Wuppertal.

Painter, engraver, sculptor, watercolourist, photographer.

From 1929 to 1931, Batz studied sculpture at the Bauhaus School (school of design founded by Walter Gropius). He also studied painting under Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee. Staying for a time in France and Switzerland, from ...

Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

[Bauhaus Berlin; Bauhaus Dessau, Hochschule für Gestaltung; Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar]

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or masons’ lodges. The school re-established workshop training, as opposed to impractical academic studio education. Its contribution to the development of Functionalism in architecture was widely influential. It exemplified the contemporary desire to form unified academies incorporating art colleges, colleges of arts and crafts and schools of architecture, thus promoting a closer cooperation between the practice of ‘fine’ and ‘applied’ art and architecture. The origins of the school lay in attempts in the 19th and early 20th centuries to re-establish the bond between artistic creativity and manufacturing that had been broken by the Industrial Revolution. According to Walter Gropius in ...

Article

Monica Bohm-Duchen

(b Haag, Austria, April 5, 1900; d Santa Barbara, CA, Sept 30, 1985).

American painter, designer, photographer and typographer, of Austrian birth. After serving in the Austrian army (1917–18), Bayer studied architecture under Professor Schmidthammer in Linz in 1919 and in 1920 worked with the architect Emanuel Margold in Darmstadt. From 1921 to 1923 he attended the Bauhaus in Weimar, studying mural painting (with Vasily Kandinsky) and typography; it was at this time that he created the Universal alphabet, consisting only of lowercase letters. In 1925 he returned to the Bauhaus, then in Dessau, as a teacher of advertising, layout and typography, remaining there until 1928. For the next ten years he was based in Berlin as a commercial artist: he worked as art manager of Vogue (1929–30) and as director of the Dorland advertising agency. Shortly after his first one-man exhibitions at the Galerie Povolotski, Paris, and at the Kunstlerbund März, Linz (both 1929), he created photomontages of a Surrealist nature, such as ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, female.

Active in Germany.

Born 1898, in Vörösmart; died 1945.

Draughtswoman.

Otti Berger studied at the Bauhaus from 1927 until 1933, then turned temporarily to weaving and designed a large number of fabrics in Berlin for the Netherlands and England. She died in a concentration camp....

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Born 24 December 1909, in Copenhagen; died 13 September 1957, in Halmstad.

Painter.

Bjerke Petersen studied under Klee and Kandinsky at the Bauhaus in Dessau in or around 1926. On his return to Denmark, he was keen to promote the concepts and work of non-figurative artists. Accordingly, he edited the periodical ...

Article

Marianne Lorenz

[Blauen Vier]

Name applied to a group of German painters, founded at the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany, on 31 March 1924. The group consisted of Vasily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Alexei Jawlensky and Lyonel Feininger, who were formerly associated with the Blaue Reiter group. The idea for founding the Blue Four came from Galka Scheyer, a former pupil of Jawlensky, who sought to make the work and ideas of these artists better known in the USA through exhibitions, lectures and sales. While the Blue Four was not an official association, its name was chosen to give American audiences an idea about the type of artists involved and also to allude to the artists’ previous association with the Blaue Reiter group. In May 1924 Scheyer travelled to New York, where the first Blue Four exhibition took place at the Charles Daniel Gallery (Feb–March 1925). Scheyer then moved to California, where the first of many Blue Four exhibitions in the San Francisco and Los Angeles areas took place at the Oakland Museum in autumn ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1897, in Hofgeismars; died 1968, at the abbey of Maria-Laach.

Draughtsman.

Theodor Bogler studied architecture and art history in Munich after World Was I, then spent time at the Bauhaus from 1919-1925. He went on to direct the arts and crafts department of a sandstone factory near Berlin. He took holy orders at the Maria Laach abbey in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 July 1906, in Munich; died 9 November 1972, in Paris.

Painter, engraver. Figures, nudes, portraits, landscapes, seascapes.

Paul Braig studied in Munich and from 1923 to 1924 at the Bauhaus in Dessau under Kandinsky and Klee. He then spent time in Florence where he discovered Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1904.

Draughtsman, designer.

Hin Bredendieck was an industrial designer and lived and worked in Atlanta. He studied in Stuttgart and Hamburg and was a student at the Bauhaus between 1927 and 1930. From 1937 to 1945, he was director of the foundation course at the New Bauhaus in Chicago....

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1901, in Steinach (Thuringia).

Painter.

Studied between 1920 and 1923 under Lyonel Feininger at the Bauhaus in Dessau and went on to teach art in Thuringia until 1933, at which point his art was proscribed by the National Socialists as 'degenerate'....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1919, in New Orleans; died 1985.

Painter, sculptor.

Fritz Bultman studied at the New Orleans Art and Craft School and then at the New Bauhaus in Chicago from 1937 to 1938 and finally with Hans Hofmann in Provincetown from 1938 to 1940...