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Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1959.

Born 20 February 1931, in Budapest; died 22 March 1987, in Paris.

Painter, engraver.

Pop Art, Nova Figurace (New Figuration).

Atila first studied architecture in Paris, then in Stuttgart, before working with the painter Willy Baumeister. He moved definitively to Paris in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1938, in Tirlement (Brabant).

Painter, draughtsman.

Pop Art.

Hugo Duchateau trained at the higher institute of architecture and applied arts in Hasselt. He was a founder member of the Research Group in 1967.

He is regarded as an avant-garde artist of the Pop Art movement. In terms of both intention and execution, his work is centred around the production and the existence of objects: by juxtaposing the painter's tools, such as brushes and rules, and the marks left on the canvas by these tools, Duchateau attempts to describe the myth of the tool rather than trying to give a dialectical definition of the paint as material (as was rigorously pursued by Toroni, for example). He has taken part in various collective exhibitions, notably the São Paulo Biennale of ...

Article

Elisabeth Lebovici

(b Neuilly-sur-Seine, nr Paris, Feb 22, 1939; d New York, Sept 4, 2008).

French painter, sculptor and printmaker. He briefly studied architecture in 1960 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris but was self-taught as a painter. Sympathetic to Nouveau Réalisme but wishing to counter the lyricism of Art informel in the context of painting, he adopted a cool representational style, often using clichéd imagery. Such works brought him within the orbit of Pop art. Among his first paintings exhibited at the 2e Biennale de Paris (Paris, Mus. A. Mod. Ville Paris, 1961) next to an installation by Martial Raysse were visual puns on several vividly coloured compositions entitled Jeu de Jacquet (1961; see 1978 exh. cat.), a pun on his name and the game of backgammon, on which he based their formats. In 1962 he instituted a series of paintings entitled Camouflages, in which he superimposed a vulgar symbol on to a reproduction of a work of art: a Shell petrol pump on Botticelli’s Venus (...

Article

Eric M. Wolf

( Houston )

American art collection that opened in 1987. In 2015 the collection contained approximately 17,000 objects, specializing in modern and contemporary art (with particular strength in Surrealism, School of Paris, Abstract Expressionism, Pop art, and Minimalism), antiquities, Byzantine art, and the art of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas. While the vast majority of works in the museum come from the collection of its late founders, John and Dominique Menil, de, the museum continues to collect and grow its art collection.

The main building was designed by architect Renzo Piano and was his first solo museum commission (he had previously partnered with Richard Rogers in the design of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris) and his first commission in the USA. In 2013 this building won the Twenty-Five Year Award of the American Institute of Architects, recognizing architectural design of lasting significance. Sited in a residential neighbourhood in Houston’s Montrose district, the modestly scaled museum building is surrounded by bungalows, houses, and smaller satellite galleries creating a campus-like environment. These surrounding properties are owned by the Menil Foundation and are painted a grey matching that of the wooden cladding on the main building. The museum features the first iteration of Piano’s signature glass roof, here suspended over large ferro-concrete ‘leaves’ or fixed louvres, which regulate the natural light entering the galleries. In addition to gallery space, the main building contains a conservation laboratory with studios for painting, object, and paper treatment, a research library, archives, museum offices, and the second floor ‘treasure rooms’, a sort of curated art storage making a large portion of the museum’s collection immediately available to curatorial staff and visiting scholars....

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Bogotá, Aug 12, 1941).

Colombian sculptor, collagist, and conceptual artist. He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia in Bogotá from 1959 to 1965 and began at this time to make collages influenced by Pop art. In 1966 he made the first of his Boxes, painted in strong flat colors, often red or yellow, to which he affixed industrial elements such as telephone handsets. Soon afterwards he began to make only white boxes, using the color to complement the mystery of the objects they contained, such as the heads, arms, and legs of dolls, machine parts, wooden eggs, and domestic objects; the penetrating humor and arbitrariness with which he juxtaposed such things recalled the spirit of Dada.

In the 1970s Salcedo became involved for a time with conceptual art in mordantly critical and irreverent works, such as The National Coat of Arms (1973; Bogotá, Mus. A. Mod.). He subsequently returned, however, to sculptural objects, bringing together two or more previously unconnected elements into an unsuspected poetic unity when assembled. These in turn gave way to works concerned with the representation of water, for example a group of saw-blades aligned in wavelike patterns or rectangles of glass arranged to resemble rain. Some of these included human figures, bringing to bear a sense of solitude and anxiety that added to their poetry and suggestiveness....

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Naples.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Clorindo Testa qualified as an architect at the university in Buenos Aires. Between 1949 and 1951, he travelled in Europe. He lives and works in Buenos Aires. For many years he was known as one of the group of Argentinean abstract artists but, in the 1960s, he moved increasingly towards Pop Art, partly as a result of working in the field of advertising....

Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1958, in Bilbao.

Painter, photographer.

Pop Art.

Ugalde studied architecture, fine art and philosophy in Madrid. He then won a scholarship to stay in New York in 1986, where he lived until 1989. He now lives and works in Madrid. He is strongly influenced by Pop Art, incorporating people and scenes from comic strips, hieroglyphs and landscapes into his pictorial space. He subsequently photographed 'anything which grabbed (his) attention, deserted streets, retired villagers, tumbledown houses', to evoke contemporary rural Spain. He adds large splashes of white or grey paint and sticks parts of postcards, images of animals or people from comic strips to the images obtained. In ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Los Angeles, CA, Nov 25, 1928).

American painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He took up painting as a self-taught artist in 1953, the same year in which he began working as an illustrator in the Production Engineering Department of Northrop Aircraft in Los Angeles. In 1960, two years after leaving that job and one year after marrying the American painter Jo(sephine Gail) Baer , he settled in New York, where he became associated with the nascent Pop art movement. The Minimalist sculptor Donald Judd, who favourably reviewed his first one-man show at the Robert Elkon Gallery, New York, in 1963, was to become a lifelong supporter; although it might seem curious that an artist whose work was as severe as Judd’s would appreciate the often lighthearted figurative work of Wesley, with its linear comic-book style and pastel colours, Judd clearly appreciated the clarity of form, subtlety, precision of placement and economy of means that defined Wesley’s art from the beginning. ...