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Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Madrid, 1942).

Spanish painter, sculptor and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Madrid he came under the influence of Pop art during a stay in London in 1965. On settling again in Madrid in that year he began to concentrate on images of movement, as in the screenprint Story of the Man Who Falls I, for which he was awarded a prize at the Kraków Biennale in 1966. He continued to explore movement through serial forms and stereotyped images in plexiglass constructions such as the Changeable Movement series (1967) and from 1968 used computers as part of this process. These interests led to sculptures and paintings titled Transformable Movements, which he presented in association with aleatoric music.

Alexanco became increasingly involved with performance and collaborated with the Spanish composer Luis de Pablo (b 1930) on Soledad interrumpida (1971) and Historia natural...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Wernigerode.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Otmar Alt trained in Berlin, where he lived, exhibiting since 1965 in private German galleries. He integrated well with his generation. His paintings have very jagged forms and clear colours. He might have been distantly compared with Miró, if he had not been able to adapt this style to the cheerful aesthetics of Pop Art....

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b São Paulo, 1935).

Brazilian painter and printmaker. After studying engraving in São Paulo, he moved to New York in 1959 to complete his studies at the Pratt Graphic Center, where his contact with international Pop art merged with his own interest in Brazilian popular imagery, for example in the portfolio of woodcuts Mine and Yours (1967). Immediately afterwards he began painting ambiguous and ironic still-lifes collectively titled Brasíliana, which use bananas as symbols of underdevelopment and exploitation, for example BR-1 SP (1970; São Paulo, Pin. Estado) and Bananas (1971; Washington, DC, Mus. Mod. A. Latin America). In 1971 he won a trip abroad in the National Salon of Modern Art (Rio de Janeiro), which took him again to New York between 1972 and 1973. On his return to São Paulo he began the series Battlegrounds, in which he submitted the previously reclining bananas to slashing, torture and putrefaction. Subsequently shapes were reorganized into configurations of an undramatic Surrealism, playful, colourful, tumescent and as firmly rooted as ever in his native Brazil and Latin America....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1929, in New York.

Painter, draughtswoman. Artists’ books.

Pop Art, Identity Art (Feminist Art).

Ida Applebroog studied at the New York Institute of Applied Arts and Sciences and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. She lived briefly in California, teaching at the University of California, San Diego, and exhibiting her sculptures locally (as Ida Horowitz). After moving to New York in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1930.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Allan d'Arcangelo studied at the University of Buffalo until 1953. In 1956 he went to New York and lived in Mexico from 1958 to 1959. Since 1956 he has appeared in the major collective shows of Pop Art - the art of salvaging real objects from everyday life, involving ordinary urban settings, everyday objects, rubbish, scrap, cartoons and their heroes. Since ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 24 September 1930, in Benicia (California); died 2 November 1992, in Benicia.

Ceramicist, sculptor, painter, printmaker, draughtsman. Figures.

Pop Art, Funk Art.

Robert Arneson studied at the College of Marin Kentfield, California (1949-1951), California College of Arts and Crafts (...

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Copenhagen.

Painter.

Pop Art, Minimal Art.

Self-taught, Per Arnoldi was influenced by the imagery of Pop Art. Arnoldi presents objects from the circus such as sticks, hats and balls with a mixture of humour, irony and a calculated naivety. He seems to have veered towards Minimalist austerity in very large formats involving vast monochrome areas separated by verticals in bright colours. He first exhibited in Munich (...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Washington, DC, Dec 26, 1924; d in Albany, NY, Feb 9, 2013).

American sculptor and painter . He studied art in 1949–50 under Amédée Ozenfant in New York. During the 1950s he designed and made furniture in New York, but after a fire that destroyed most of the contents of his shop in 1958 he turned again to art, initially painting abstract pictures derived from memories of the New Mexican landscape.

Artschwager continued to produce furniture and, after a commission to make altars for ships in 1960, had the idea of producing sculptures that mimicked actual objects while simultaneously betraying their identity as artistic illusions. At first these included objets trouvés made of wood, overpainted with acrylic in an exaggerated wood-grain pattern (e.g. Table and Chair, 1962–3; New York, Paula Cooper priv. col., see 1988–9 exh. cat., p. 49), but he soon developed more abstract or geometrical versions of such objects formed from a veneer of formica on wood (e.g. Table and Chair...

Article

Canadian First Nations (We Wai Kai/Cape Mudge Band), 21st century, male.

Born 1975, in Richmond (British Columbia).

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer.

The aesthetic of Sonny Assu (Liǥwilda’x̱w/Laich-kwil-tach) is a confluence of Northwest Coast formline motifs and popular Western culture. He is well versed in the traditional Kwakwaka’wakw arts of drum, blanket and basket making and uses these as the starting place of many of his artworks. Drawing on a pop sensibility, mass-media culture is used as a conduit to explore and expose these Kwakwaka’wakw traditions as well as the artist’s own mixed heritage. By bringing these seemingly desperate elements together, Assu’s works challenge popular notions of authenticity regarding Indigenous people and their art. Moreover, while the works may appear whimsical at first glance, they offer a sharp critique of Western society’s culture of consumption as it relates to colonisation, both historical and ongoing, in North America....

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1959.

Born 20 February 1931, in Budapest; died 22 March 1987, in Paris.

Painter, engraver.

Pop Art, Nova Figurace (New Figuration).

Atila first studied architecture in Paris, then in Stuttgart, before working with the painter Willy Baumeister. He moved definitively to Paris in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, female.

Born 1936, in Namur; died 1972.

Painter.

Axell was a pupil of René Magritte who worked with new materials, such as opalescent plastic, which she cut into shapes of the female form in a pop art style. Their luxurious quality led Pierre Restany to call them ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born c. 1935.

Painter, sculptor.

Groups: Spur, Geflecht.

Bachmayer was active with the Spur group, which became the Geflecht Group c. 1966. Both groups were influenced by CoBrA and Pop Art.

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Bordeaux.

Painter.

Balanci's work is influenced by abstract and Pop art, and is characterised by thick textures of cement and an amalgam of paper on to which he draws vague outlines. He has exhibited in Paris at the Salon de Mai and the Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui since ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Luton.

Sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker.

Pop Art.

Clive Barker was associated with the Pop Art Movement in the early 1960s. His works from the years 1966 to 1969 included the use of facsimiles of everyday objects which he reproduced in brass, copper and bronze, either individually or in combinations, as, for example, ...

Article

Portuguese, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Coimbra.

Painter.

Eduardo Batarda was influenced by the imagery of Pop Art and turned towards a more complex, if often self-reverential, type of painting, in which he depicted the contemporary world. He showed his work in solo exhibitions. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1934, in Frankfurt am Main.

Painter, installation artist.

Bauermeister lives and works in Cologne. In 1961, her work was featured in a group exhibition alongside American Pop artists Jaspar Johns and Robert Rauschenberg at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam; all three artists were unknown at that time. In ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b Dodge City, KA, June 7, 1934).

American painter. He studied at City College, Los Angeles (1953–5), California College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, CA (1955–6) and Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles (1956–7). Between 1961 and 1973 he lectured at various art colleges. After initially studying ceramics, Bengston began to concentrate on painting in 1956 and participated in the first group show at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles in 1957, which put him at the centre the region’s new avant-garde, alongside such figures as Ed Kienholtz and Ed Moses. He is best known for the elegiac, Dada-esque tone of his work in the 1960s, when he was heavily influenced by the motorbike and car culture of Southern California, from which he drew motifs such as chevrons, Draculas and love hearts. Mr. Britt (1960; see 1988 exh. cat, pl. 3) is typical in its placement of sergeant stripes in a square in the centre, surrounded by a flat covering of forest green. ...

Article

20th century, male.

Painter.

Bernardini took part in an exhibition organised in 1969 by the 'Distances' group and coordinated by Pierre Gaudibert at the museum of modern art in Paris. His work draws on Pop Art and is centred on day-to-day and mundane aspects of contemporary life....

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 1921, in The Hague.

Painter.

Hermanus Berserik was part of the 'Nouveau Réalisme' movement that emerged in the 1960s which, contrary to a widespread tendency in recent forms of realism, rejected any form of political or social engagement. In his paintings Berserik aims to establish a report that is intended to be neutral, which he transgresses with irony, a detailed inventory of every item that constitutes his environment, which is everyone's environment. He thereby places a more or less subtle emphasis on the elements that indicate the so-called needs that are imposed by consumer society, fossilised into manias in individuals - the 'things' ('Les Choses') that are condemned by Georges Pérec in his first book of this title....

Article

Portuguese, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1958.

Born 1935, in Alhandra, near Lisbon.

Painter, sculptor, screen printer. Figure compositions, interiors, landscapes with figures.

Pop Art, Nouvelle Figuration, Figuration Narrative.

René Bertholo was a graduate of the school of decorative art in Lisbon. He spent some time in Munich in ...