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Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Madrid, 1942).

Spanish painter, sculptor and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Madrid he came under the influence of Pop art during a stay in London in 1965. On settling again in Madrid in that year he began to concentrate on images of movement, as in the screenprint Story of the Man Who Falls I, for which he was awarded a prize at the Kraków Biennale in 1966. He continued to explore movement through serial forms and stereotyped images in plexiglass constructions such as the Changeable Movement series (1967) and from 1968 used computers as part of this process. These interests led to sculptures and paintings titled Transformable Movements, which he presented in association with aleatoric music.

Alexanco became increasingly involved with performance and collaborated with the Spanish composer Luis de Pablo (b 1930) on Soledad interrumpida (1971) and Historia natural...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Wernigerode.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Otmar Alt trained in Berlin, where he lived, exhibiting since 1965 in private German galleries. He integrated well with his generation. His paintings have very jagged forms and clear colours. He might have been distantly compared with Miró, if he had not been able to adapt this style to the cheerful aesthetics of Pop Art....

Article

Arman  

Alfred Pacquement

[Fernandez, Armand]

(b Nice, Nov 17, 1928; d New York, Oct 22, 2005).

American sculptor and collector of French birth. Arman lived in Nice until 1949, studying there at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs from 1946 and in 1947 striking up a friendship with the artist Yves Klein, with whom he was later closely associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement. In 1949 he moved to Paris, where he studied at the Ecole du Louvre and where in an exhibition in 1954 he discovered the work of Kurt Schwitters, which led him to reject the lyrical abstraction of the period. In 1955 Arman began producing Stamps, using ink-pads in a determined critique of Art informel and Abstract Expressionism to suggest a depersonalized and mechanical version of all-over paintings. In his next series, the Gait of Objects, which he initiated in 1958, he took further his rejection of the subjectivity of the personal touch by throwing inked objects against the canvas.

Arman’s willingness to embrace chance was indicated by his decision in ...

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Copenhagen.

Painter.

Pop Art, Minimal Art.

Self-taught, Per Arnoldi was influenced by the imagery of Pop Art. Arnoldi presents objects from the circus such as sticks, hats and balls with a mixture of humour, irony and a calculated naivety. He seems to have veered towards Minimalist austerity in very large formats involving vast monochrome areas separated by verticals in bright colours. He first exhibited in Munich (...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1959.

Born 20 February 1931, in Budapest; died 22 March 1987, in Paris.

Painter, engraver.

Pop Art, Nova Figurace (New Figuration).

Atila first studied architecture in Paris, then in Stuttgart, before working with the painter Willy Baumeister. He moved definitively to Paris in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, female.

Born 1936, in Namur; died 1972.

Painter.

Axell was a pupil of René Magritte who worked with new materials, such as opalescent plastic, which she cut into shapes of the female form in a pop art style. Their luxurious quality led Pierre Restany to call them ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born c. 1935.

Painter, sculptor.

Groups: Spur, Geflecht.

Bachmayer was active with the Spur group, which became the Geflecht Group c. 1966. Both groups were influenced by CoBrA and Pop Art.

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Bordeaux.

Painter.

Balanci's work is influenced by abstract and Pop art, and is characterised by thick textures of cement and an amalgam of paper on to which he draws vague outlines. He has exhibited in Paris at the Salon de Mai and the Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui since ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Luton.

Sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker.

Pop Art.

Clive Barker was associated with the Pop Art Movement in the early 1960s. His works from the years 1966 to 1969 included the use of facsimiles of everyday objects which he reproduced in brass, copper and bronze, either individually or in combinations, as, for example, ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Luton, Bedfordshire, Aug 29, 1940).

English sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at Luton College of Technology and Art from 1957 but abandoned the course in 1959, working instead on the assembly-line of the Vauxhall car factory in Luton for 18 months. The experience of helping to build beautiful, machine-made objects on the shop floor proved decisive on his choice of materials for his first sculptures in 1962: leather and chrome-plated metal. The idea of relying on specialist fabricators to achieve the best result made it easy for him to accept Marcel Duchamp’s notion of the ready-made, as applied to ordinary manufactured items designated as sculpture but not made by the artist’s own hands. Rather than simply taking things as he found them, however, Barker either commissioned fabricators to make them to his specifications as with his leather-clad Zip Boxes of 1962, which aligned him with Pop art or had the original objects recast or resurfaced so that the sculptures became non-functional surrogates for them. The techniques and materials he employed, the almost heroic elevation of the commonplace, the humorous touches and the acceptance of the banal and the kitsch all contribute to the provocative originality of Barker’s work of the 1960s and to its importance in anticipating and probably influencing the sculptures with which Jeff Koons made his name in the mid-1980s....

Article

Portuguese, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Coimbra.

Painter.

Eduardo Batarda was influenced by the imagery of Pop Art and turned towards a more complex, if often self-reverential, type of painting, in which he depicted the contemporary world. He showed his work in solo exhibitions. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1934, in Frankfurt am Main.

Painter, installation artist.

Bauermeister lives and works in Cologne. In 1961, her work was featured in a group exhibition alongside American Pop artists Jaspar Johns and Robert Rauschenberg at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam; all three artists were unknown at that time. In ...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 1921, in The Hague.

Painter.

Hermanus Berserik was part of the 'Nouveau Réalisme' movement that emerged in the 1960s which, contrary to a widespread tendency in recent forms of realism, rejected any form of political or social engagement. In his paintings Berserik aims to establish a report that is intended to be neutral, which he transgresses with irony, a detailed inventory of every item that constitutes his environment, which is everyone's environment. He thereby places a more or less subtle emphasis on the elements that indicate the so-called needs that are imposed by consumer society, fossilised into manias in individuals - the 'things' ('Les Choses') that are condemned by Georges Pérec in his first book of this title....

Article

Portuguese, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1958.

Born 1935, in Alhandra, near Lisbon.

Painter, sculptor, screen printer. Figure compositions, interiors, landscapes with figures.

Pop Art, Nouvelle Figuration, Figuration Narrative.

René Bertholo was a graduate of the school of decorative art in Lisbon. He spent some time in Munich in ...

Article

Swedish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1957, in Stockholm.

Painter (mixed media).

Ernst Billgren studied at the Valand art academy (1982-1987). HIs paintings are presented with a flourish not dissimilar to Pop Art practices, the complexity of which adds a theatrical, distancing dimension. He has had many solo exhibitions in Sweden, and has participated in collective exhibitions in Sweden, Norway, Germany, Brasil and Mexico....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1938, in Ghent.

Painter, engraver.

Jean Bilquin studied, and subsequently taught, at the Ghent academy. His early work is a figurative amalgam of classical Flemish painting styles and Pop Art. His style subsequently evolved into a spontaneous Expressionism verging on the abstract. He won the East Flanders prize in ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 25 June 1932, in Dartford.

Painter, collage artist, draughtsman, illustrator, sculptor.

Pop Art.

The Brotherhood of Ruralists.

Peter Blake studied between 1953 and 1956 at the Royal College of Art in London, from where the second wave of English Pop Art was launched, thanks to the spontaneous activity of its pupils. He was awarded the Leverhulme Research Award in 1956, to study popular art. Between 1956 and 1957 he made an extended journey to Europe (France, Italy, Spain, Holland and Belgium), and in 1961 was awarded the first Junior Prize from the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. In 1964 he was appointed a lecturer at the Royal College of Art in London and at the Walthamstow School of Art. In 1975 he was a founder member of the group of artists called The Brotherhood of Ruralists, whose participating artists had as their joint preoccupation an interest with a romantic connotation for the countryside and landscape. He left the group in 1983, at the time of his retrospective exhibition at the Tate Gallery in London. From 1994 to 1996 he was Associate Artist at the National Gallery in London....

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Dartford, Kent, June 25, 1932).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor. He studied at Gravesend Technical College and School of Art from 1946 to 1951, and from 1953 at the Royal College of Art, London, where he was awarded a First-Class Diploma in 1956. He then travelled through Europe for a year on a Leverhulme Research Award to study the popular and folk art that had already served him as a source of inspiration. While still a student Blake began producing paintings that openly testified to his love of popular entertainment and the ephemera of modern life, for example Children Reading Comics (1954; Carlisle, Mus. & A.G.), and which were phrased in a faux-naïf style that owed something to the example of American realist painters such as Ben Shahn. In these works Blake displayed his nostalgia for dying traditions not only by his preference for circus imagery but also by artificially weathering the irregular wooden panels on which he was then painting. His respect for fairground art, barge painting, tattooing, commercial art, illustration and other forms of image-making rooted in folkloric traditions led him to produce some of the first works to which the term ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 30 April 1928, in Nancy.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Blum used very violent colours in his works, borrowed from the Expressionist wave and the Pop Art movement, although he did not use their narrative possibilities. In his work, colour matched the corresponding form to become symbolic in 'colour forms'. He participated in the Salon Comparaisons from ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1937, in Portsmouth.

Painter.

Pop Art, Op Art.

Derek Boshier studied at the Royal College of Art in London from 1959 and 1962. In 1980 he moved to Texas. He won a prize from the Arts Council in ...