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Article

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Active in Austria.

Born 1941, in Istanbul.

Engraver.

A musician, Denec specialised in electronic sounds whilst studying at the school of fine art in Vienna, where he settled. His engravings of a magical world have been exhibited in Turkey and in Vienna....

Article

Israeli, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1951.

Photographer. Multimedia.

A theorist and art and philosophy critic, he is also an editor and artist.

He takes part in group exhibitions, notably Implicit Connections in 1997 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

Article

Israeli, 20th century, male.

Born 1936.

Performance artist, installation artist. Multimedia.

Educated on a kibbutz, he expresses himself through performances, such as Ararat Express, given in Lyons in spring 1987, as well as through exhibitions, notably that of the same year at the Museum of Israeli Art Ramat Gan....

Article

Israeli, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the United Kingdom.

Born 1967, in Tel Aviv, Israel.

Photographer, video artist. Sound, multimedia.

Ori Gersht studied photography at the University of Westminster, London, and graduated with a B.A. (Hons) in 1992. He then went on to study for an M.A. in the same subject at the Royal College of Art, London. A year after graduating, he took up the post of senior lecturer at Kent Institute of Art and Design, where he taught for seven years before becoming a reader at the same institute until ...

Article

Canadian, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1 Sept 1948, in London (Ontario).

Multimedia artist, installation artist, curator.

Jamelie Hassan is a Canadian artist, curator, and activist of Arabic background. She studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome in 1967, the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Beirut, Lebanon, ...

Article

Palestinian, 20th–21st century, female.

Active in England since 1975.

Born 1952, in Beirut.

Sculptor, installation artist, photographer. Multimedia.

Mona Hatoum studied graphic design at Beirut University College before settling in London in 1975, during civil war in Lebanon. In London she studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art and the Slade School of Fine Art. In the 1980s she began making video and performance works incorporating themes of exile and the body, such as ...

Article

Mary Chou

(b Bethlehem, 1970).

Palestinian conceptual artist. Jacir’s works use a variety of media including film, photography, installation, performance, video, sound, sculpture and painting. Jacir was raised in Saudi Arabia and attended high school in Rome, Italy. She received her BA from the University of Dallas, Irving, TX in 1992, her MFA from the Memphis College of Art, Memphis, TN in 1994, and participated in the Whitney Independent Study Program from 1998 to 1999. She became a professor at the International Academy of Art, Palestine in Ramallah in 2007. Jacir’s conceptual works explore the physical and psychological effects of social and political displacement and exile, primarily how they affect the Palestinian community. Her work investigated the impact of Israeli action on the Palestinian people and countered representations of Palestinians in the press as primarily militant. Jacir often collaborated with members of the Palestinian community, both local and international, in the creation of her works....

Article

Tunisian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1946.

Born 1926, in La Marsa.

Painter. Multimedia.

Koskas travelled to Paris in 1946, where he worked in the studio of André Lhote and Fernand Léger and formed a friendship with Vantongerloo. He was involved in theatre and cinema projects, notably with the director Jacques Baratier. After completing a number of figurative paintings influenced by Léger, he evolved towards abstraction ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Shiraz, 1963).

Iranian artist. Moshiri graduated from the California Institute of Arts in 1984 and experimented with installations, video art and painting before returning to Tehran in 1991. He became known for a series of large oil paintings on canvas showing monumental jars and bowls with richly textured surfaces and flowing calligraphy that he began in 2001. The form and cracked and weathered surface of the jars reflects his fascination with archaeology, and the texts on them contain poems in nasta‛līq script. In some cases, his paintings contain only letters or numbers. Inspired by calligraphic practice sheets, known as siyāh-mashq, and by the alphanumeric system (abjad), he plays with the shape rather than the meaning of words. His more conceptual pieces include a vitrine of gilded objects (2003), Rogue gun installation (2004), and Ultimate Toy–Legold (2004). He has held a number of solo exhibitions, including one at Leighton House, London (...

Article

Kimberly Bobier

(b El Nuhud, 1951).

Sudanese multimedia and performance artist, art critic, and art historian, active in France. Musa graduated from the College of Fine and Applied Art, Khartoum Polytechnic, in 1974. After moving to Italy from Sudan, Musa relocated to France and matriculated at Montpellier University, earning ah Doctorate in Art History in 1989 and a teaching diploma in Fine Arts from Montpellier University in 1995. Subsequently, Musa created artist’s books and illustrated tomes of Sudanese folktales and taught calligraphy. His work critiques European imperialism by parodying the authoritative spectacles of Western museum displays, popular icons, and artistic masterpieces such as Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa (c. 1500–07; Paris, Louvre) and Gustave Courbet’s the Origin of the World (1866; Paris, Mus. Orsay), both referenced in Musa’s The Origin of Art (1998). Musa’s artwork has frequently addressed stereotypes of Africans and Arabs.

From the late 1980s Musa’s ongoing performance series ‘Graphic Ceremonies’ engaged public audiences in exploring the intersection between the art exhibition and ritual. In a performance at the ...

Article

Iranian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in the USA.

Born 26 March 1957, in Qazvin, Iran.

Painter, video artist, installation artist, photographer. Multimedia.

Shirin Neshat was born in Iran but left to study art at the University of California, Berkeley, at the age of 17. She lives and works in New York. She won a Lion d’Or at the Venice Biennale in ...

Article

Francis Summers

(b Qazvin, Iran, March 26, 1957).

American photographer and video artist of Iranian birth. She studied at the University of California, Berkeley, where she was awarded a BFA in 1979 and an MFA in 1982. She became involved in the Storefront for Art and Architecture in New York when she was unable to return to Iran for political reasons. Years later, having settled in New York, she began making art in response to the situation she found after a visit to the post-Shah religious state. Using the Islamic veil, or chador, she made photographs that examined stereotypes of Muslim women as oppressed by the veil but also empowered by their refusal of the Western colonial gaze, as in Women of Allah (1993–7) and Rebellious Silence (1994; see 2000 exh. cat., p. 61). In these works Neshat is often posed with a gun, her image overlaid in Islamic script, as a way of confronting the Western view of Islam as both incomprehensible and dangerous. In ...

Article

Sarkis  

Armenian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1964.

Born 1938, in Istanbul.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor of assemblages, installation artist. Multimedia.

Conceptual Art, Art Narratif.

After studying in Istanbul from 1957 to 1960, Sarkis began to paint. He worked in Paris from 1964 onwards and taught at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Strasbourg. Between ...

Article

Susan T. Goodman

(b Jerusalem, 1932; d Tel Aviv, Sept 1, 2009).

Israeli sculptor and video artist. He studied from 1956 to 1958 at the Avni Art Institute in Tel Aviv, worked with sculptor Itzhak Danziger in 1958, and from 1959 to 1962 studied at St Martin’s School of Art in London. After his return to Israel in 1963 he created severely geometrical painted steel sculptures such as Red Sculpture (h. 2 m, 1968; Tel Aviv Mus. A.) and site-specific sculptural installations such as White from 0 Degrees to 180 Degrees (1969; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.) and gates (1969) at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem.

In 1971 Schwartz moved to New York, where he produced installations in gallery spaces; some of these challenged the viewer’s visual expectations by means of an unorthodox use of mirror images, as in Changing Square (1976; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.), or through photographs and architectonic line drawings. In 1971 he began also to work with video installations in which live images were relayed from various points of view, using closed circuit video systems and monitors, to explore the relationship between real and represented space, as in ...

Article

Robin Holmes

(b Paris, April 1, 1963).

French photographer, video artist, and installation artist of Algerian descent, active in the UK. Born in Paris in 1963, Zineb Sedira relocated to England in 1986. In 1995 she earned a BA in critical fine art practice with a focus on post-colonial studies at Central Saint Martins School of Art. She finished an MFA in Media at the Slade School of Art in 1997 and conducted research studies at the Royal College of Art until 2003. Through the use of self-portraiture, family narrative, and images of the Mediterranean, her work has addressed ethnic, religious, and gender identities as well as issues of stereotype, displacement, and migration. She draws on her Algerian heritage in much of her work, evoking North Africa through the integration of traditional Islamic forms and motifs into her installations. In her 1997 work Quatre générations de femmes, Sedira incorporated repeated images of her mother, daughter, and herself into traditional Islamic tile patterns (...

Article

Israeli-British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in London from the late 1960s.

Born 1945, in Israel.

Video artist, painter, sculptor. Multimedia.

Amikam Toren spent his formative years in Tel Aviv learning to paint and draw under Peter Hesse. He had his first solo show at the Maserik Gallery in Tel Aviv in ...

Article

Israeli, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1965, in Tel Aviv.

Sculptor, installation artist, video artist. Multimedia.

Conceptual Art.

Uri Tzaig graduated from the theatre school in Jerusalem in 1990 and lives and works in Tel Aviv. He initially produced small-scale sculptures in which his literary work played an essential part, then progressed to video installations. One of these, ...

Article

Turkish, 20th century, female.

Active and naturalised in France since 1965.

Born 1937, in Cairo, of Turkish origin.

Painter, draughtswoman. Multimedia.

Nil Yalter beagn as an Abstract painter, then used mainly video, complemented with paint­ings, drawings and objects removed from their contexts. From an ‘ethno-critical’ perspective, she draws parallels between Turkish women, imprisoned women and Turkish immigrant workers in altered surroundings, leaving viewers free to make their own interpretations. In ...