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Susan Pares

[Pak Sŏ-bo]

(b1931).

Korean painter and teacher. He graduated in 1954 from the Fine Arts College, Hong’ik University, Seoul, and exhibited in Korea, East and South-east Asia, the USA, Europe and elsewhere. He is regarded as a leader of Korean modernism. Park has used a variety of techniques. Typical of his Art informel stage is Painting No. 1 (1957; oil on canvas, priv. col., see Young-na Kim, p. 177), where paint was splashed on to the canvas. In his ‘white’ paintings, thin layers of gesso were applied over a period of time, then graphite and gesso were applied alternately to build up a surface. In 1989 he began to use tak (mulberry bark paper), laid in three layers on canvas, sealed with gesso and overlaid with acrylic paint. Further sheets of paper, soaked in acrylic medium or Korean ink, were then laid, and the surface was manipulated with the fingers or an implement. In working or marking the surface Park’s intention was to help the medium to express itself by adding nothing more than a sign of his involvement, which he termed his ‘écriture’; one of his works is titled simply ...

Article

J. Schilt

(b Wormerveer, Feb 1, 1894; d Zandvoort, May 28, 1974).

Dutch architect. He was trained and first employed as a civil engineer in the former Dutch East Indies (Java). He was repatriated in 1926 after a serious attack of polio. A year later he decided to become a housing architect. After settling in Rotterdam, he designed plans for housing and residential areas, working variously with Johannes Hendrik van den Broek, Leendert Cornelis van der Vlugt and Ben Merkelbach. These designs aroused great interest among the architects of Nieuwe Bouwen, of which he soon became an influential representative. Through his contacts with progressive-liberal entrepreneurs, van Tijen was also able to have several unusual residential complexes realized in prefabricated units, including the block of flats Bergpolder (1934), Rotterdam, which established his reputation. Van Tijen’s unshakeable belief in an open and democratic society convinced him in the late 1930s that the rational pragmatism of Nieuwe Bouwen was not an adequate means of giving form to life in all its multiplicity. During the German occupation, therefore, he was the moving force behind a dialogue with more traditionally-minded architects. In the 1950s he agreed to major industrialization in order to alleviate housing shortage. He built many prefabricated houses, usually in residential neighbourhoods that he had laid out (Rotterdam, Delft, Vlaardingen, The Hague and Amsterdam). He struggled until ...