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Article

British-Pakistani, 20th century, female.

Born 1917, in London, England; died 1994, in Lahore (Punjab), Pakistan.

Painter.

Modern Expressionism.

Anna Molka, born in London of Polish and Russian-Jewish parents, studied at St. Martin’s School of Art in London and then at the Royal College of Art (RCA). During this period she converted from Judaism to Islam and married Sheikh Ahmed, then an Indian student at the RCA. They moved to India permanently in ...

Article

Jan Minchin

(Vladimir Jossif)

(b Vienna, Oct 13, 1920).

Israeli painter of Austrian birth, active in Australia. He grew up in Warsaw. His father, the pseudonymous Jewish writer Melech Ravitch, owned books on German Expressionism, which were an early influence. Conscious of rising anti-Semitism in Poland, Ravitch visited Australia in 1934 and later arranged for his family to settle there. Bergner arrived in Melbourne in 1937. Poor, and with little English, his struggle to paint went hand-in-hand with a struggle to survive. In 1939 he attended the National Gallery of Victoria’s art school and came into contact with a group of young artists including Victor O’Connor (b 1918) and Noel Counihan, who were greatly influenced by Bergner’s haunting images of refugees, hard-pressed workers and the unemployed, for example The Pumpkin-eaters (c. 1940; Canberra, N.G.). Executed in an expressionist mode using a low-toned palette, they were among the first social realist pictures done in Australia.

In 1941...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 1892, in Delft; died 1989.

Painter.

Educated at the fine arts academy in the Hague; went on to teach in Indonesia between 1920 and 1937. He went through an Expressionist phase until around 1945, at which point his work becomes increasingly abstract....

Article

Indonesian, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Klungklung, Indonesia.

Painter.

Gunarsa graduated from the fine arts academy in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, where he then became senior lecturer. The abstract expressionism of his paintings reveals the influence of Indo-Balinese artistic culture and theatre. He exhibits regularly in his home country and often receives commissions. In ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Painter.

Ichigooka Noriyoshi is influenced by both traditional Japanese painting and Abstract Expressionism. He creates vast calligraphic works playing on the transparency of his colours, where his gold and black respond to his red, turquoise or green. Perfectly mastered, the paint liberally covers the canvas. He showed work in a solo exhibition at the Orangerie de Bagatelle in Paris in ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Nara Prefecture; died 1997.

Sculptor.

Bukichi Inoue was one of the central Abstract Expressionists of post-war Japan. He graduated with a diploma in 1955 from the school of fine art in Musashino near Tokyo, where he worked in the studios of Takashi Shimizu and Katsumi Kiuchi. Among other exhibitions, he featured at the museum of modern art in Tokyo in ...

Article

Sook-Kyung Lee

One of the characteristics of Korean contemporary art is a continuous effort in employing and interpreting international art practices and discourses. Art movements from Europe and North America in particular, including Abstract Expressionism, Art informel, Minimalism, Conceptual art and Post-modernism, have influenced many Korean artists’ styles and ideas since the 1950s, providing formal and conceptual grounds for critical understandings and further experiments. Whilst some artists who maintained traditional art forms such as ink painting and calligraphy exercised modernist styles and abstract forms largely within the norms and conventions of traditional genres, a large group of artists proactively adapted to Western styles, employing new materials and techniques as well as the notions of avant-garde and experimentalism (see fig.).

A major critique of the reception of Western art and aesthetics came from ‘Minjung art’ (People’s Art) in the 1980s as part of instigating a nationalist and politically charged art strategy. Several art historians and critics who emerged in the 1990s also expanded the scope of the debate with postcolonial and pluralist points of view. The shift in social, economic and political environments played an important role in changing sensibilities in art, along with the advances of technology and new media in the 2000s. The high degree of diversity and sophistication of Korean art in terms of media and subject matters became widely acknowledged within and outside the nation, and an increasing number of artists started to work on the cutting edge of international art....

Article

Ita Heinze-Greenberg

(b Allenstein [now Olsztyn, Poland], March 21, 1887; d San Francisco, Sept 15, 1953).

German architect, teacher, and writer, active also in England, Palestine, and the USA. Mendelsohn was one of the most influential exponents of architectural Expressionism, and his sketches of fluid organic building forms and his Einstein Tower, Potsdam, are among the best-known products of the movement. Although his later work abandoned three-dimensional forms in favour of more conventional, geometric designs, these often incorporated curvilinear plans and retained an innovative dynamism.

Mendelsohn grew up as one of six children of a Jewish business family in the small East Prussian town of Allenstein. Following his father’s wishes, in 1907 he began to study economics at the University of Munich but in 1908 followed his own inclinations and enrolled as an architecture student at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin. In 1910 he returned to Munich to complete his architectural studies under Theodor Fischer, one of the most progressive teachers at the Technische Hochschule, and as a student he met several Expressionist artists, including Paul Klee, Franz Marc, Vasily Kandinsky, and Hugo Ball. After graduating in ...

Article

Israeli, 20th century, male.

Active in Paris from 1955.

Born 1912.

Painter.

Daviel Messer belonged to the Expressionist movement of the Paris School.

He exhibited in Israel, in several annual Salons in Paris, and in Canada, the USA, Switzerland, England and Japan.

Article

(b Zerków, nr Posen, Germany [now Poznań, Poland], May 27, 1887; d Nahariya, Israel, 1968).

Israeli printmaker and painter of German birth. He attended the Akademie der Künste in Berlin in 1906 and in 1907 studied painting with Lovis Corinth and etching with the German painter Hermann Struck (1876–1944). He went to Paris in 1907 and here he studied first under Jean-Paul Laurens, then under Matisse and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen. After returning briefly to Berlin in 1910 he visited Italy the following year. In Berlin again in 1912 he co-founded Die Pathetiker group together with Ludwig Meidner and the German painter Richard Janthur (b 1883); they had their first group show at the Sturm-Galerie that year. The group emphasized dramatic content over artistic form and the resulting works, such as Steinhardt’s oil The City (1913; Berlin, Neue N.G.), reveal the characteristic Expressionist style. Die Pathetiker (Berlin, 1912), a portfolio of the group’s work, included etchings by Steinhardt.

While serving in the German army in World War I Steinhardt successfully exhibited 50 drawings at the ...

Article

Toru Asano

[Tetsuharu]

(b Kagoshima, April 28, 1897; d Kumamoto, April 25, 1978).

Japanese painter. He moved to Tokyo at an early age and graduated from Aoyama Gakuin Middle School in 1914. He became familiar with the work of the Futurists, Cubists and Expressionists through the composer Kōsaku Yamada (1886–1965), who had recently returned from studying in Germany. In 1915 Tōgō held a one-man show in Hibiya, Tokyo, of works that revealed the influence of these European styles. On the recommendation of Ikuma Arishima (1882–1974), an oil painter and one of the founder-members of the Nikakai, he showed the Futurist work Woman with Parasol (priv. col., see Uemura, pl. 2) in the third exhibition of the Nikakai (Jap. ‘second division society’; an association of artists influenced by Western styles founded in 1914) in 1916, for which he was awarded the Nika prize. In 1921 he went to France, also visiting Marinetti in Turin. There he participated briefly in the ...