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Article

Greta Stroeh

[Jean] (Peter Wilhelm)

(b Strassburg, Germany [now Strasbourg, France], Sept 16, 1886; d Basle, Switzerland, June 7, 1966).

French sculptor, painter, collagist, printmaker, and poet of German birth. The son of a German father and French Alsatian mother, he developed a cosmopolitan outlook from an early age and as a mature artist maintained close contact with the avant-garde throughout Europe. He was a pioneer of abstract art and one of the founders of Dada in Zurich, but he also participated actively in both Surrealism and Constructivism. While he prefigured junk art and the Fluxus movement in his incorporation of waste material, it was through his investigation of biomorphism and of chance and accident that he proved especially influential on later 20th-century art in liberating unconscious creative forces.

Following a brief period at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Strasbourg (1900–01), Arp received instruction from 1901 from a friend and neighbour, the painter and printmaker Georges Ritleng (1875–1972). He then attended the Kunstschule in Weimar (1904–7) and the Académie Julian in Paris (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.

Dadaism.

Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 7 March 1926, in Halfway (Oregon); died 5 December 2008, in Cologne.

Painter, sculptor. Multimedia.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

From 1946 to 1950, George Brecht studied physical sciences at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy & Science, and from 1950 to 1955, he trained as a chemist. He met John Cage in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 28 July 1887 , in Blainville; died 2 October 1968 , in Paris.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), sculptor, printmaker, Ready-mades.

Dadaism, Surrealism.

Groupe de Puteaux, Société Anonyme, New York Dada.

Marcel Duchamp was one of seven children, four of whom were destined to become artists - Marcel himself, his brothers Gaston and Raymond (who came to be known as Jacques Villon and Duchamp-Villon, respectively), and his sister the painter Suzanne Duchamp, who later married Jean Crotti....

Article

Marsha Meskimmon

(b Blainville, 1889; d Neuilly, 1963).

French sculptor, collagist and draughtsman. Sister of (Henri-Robert-)Marcel Duchamp. Suzanne Duchamp’s work was significant to the development of Paris Dada and modernism and her drawings and collages explore fascinating gender dynamics. She worked closely with her husband, the artist Jean Crotti and her brother, which has exacerbated the tendency to subsume her particular production under their influence.

Beginning her art studies in 1905 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Rouen, by the outset of World War I Duchamp had moved to Paris. Between 1916 and 1921 she produced a significant body of work in a formal language that has come to be called ‘mechanomorphic’—images taken from commonplace mechanical or technological objects (such as cogs, pulleys, lightbulbs, car parts, etc) arranged to describe or infer human agency, desire or behaviour. The work of Francis Picabia, with whom Duchamp and Crotti were closely allied even after his ‘rejection’ of Dada in the 1920s, typifies the mechanomorphic tendency. Duchamp’s own mechanomorphic works, such as ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, female.

Active from 1910 active in the USA.

Born 1874, in Swinemünde (now Swinoujscie, Poland); died 14 December 1927, in Paris.

Sculptor of assemblages, poet.

Dadaism.

Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven returned to Berlin in 1923, having spent the years from 1910...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1 June 1937, in Nashville (Tennessee).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, performance artist, environmental artist, installation artist, film maker.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Born Charles Rogers Grooms, the red-headed Red Grooms studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1955...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany 1900-1933, in France from 1939.

Born 12 July 1886 , in Vienna, to Czech parents; died 1 February 1971 , in Limoges, France.

Painter, collage artist, photomontage artist, photographer, sculptor.

Dadaism, Visual Poetry, Sound Poetry.

Berlin Dada, Phases group.

Raoul Hausmann lived in Berlin from 1900 to 1933, having gone there to study painting and sculpture. In 1912, he published his first critical analysis in the magazine ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1931.

Performance artist, sculptor of assemblages, painter (mixed media).

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

Geoffrey Hendricks joined Fluxus in 1966. In 1971, together with Bici Forbes Hendricks and George Maciunas, he created Flux Divorce, the movement's principal manifestation. He was also involved in several avant-garde festivals and, in ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1 November 1889, in Gotha (Thuringia); died 1978 or 1979, in Berlin.

Painter, collage artist, sculptor, watercolourist, mixed media.

Dada. Berlin Dada.

Hannah Höch studied at the Städtischen Kunstgewerbe- und Handwerksschule Charlottenburg in Berlin from 1912 to 1914. In 1914, she received a bursary at the Werkbundausstellung in Cologne, then studied at the Lehranstalt des Kunstgewerbemuseums in Berlin with Emil Orlik. Her friendship with Raoul Hausmann dates from this period. In 1918, after World War I, she participated in the activities of the Berlin Dada group. Another member, Kurt Schwitters, suggested she add an ‘h’ to the end of her first name to make in palindromic. Höch exhibited for the first time in 1919, together with Hausmann, George Grosz and John Heartfield, at the Neumann Gallery in Berlin, showing watercolours and photomontages. Hausmann asked her to contribute politically inspired collages to the magazines ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 May 1930, in Allendale (South Carolina) or Augusta (Georgia).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, mixed media, costume and set designer, illustrator. Encaustic.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jasper Johns grew up in South Carolina. He attended courses in art and painting at the University of South Carolina and, in 1948, enrolled in a commercial art school for two semesters in New York City. He served in the US Army for two years during the Korean War but was able to resume his studies at City College in New York in 1953, thanks to the GI Bill. It was at this time that he met his lifelong friend Robert Rauschenberg, the composer John Cage, and the dancer Merce Cunningham. He acted as artistic adviser for Cage and Cunningham’s dance company until 1972, collaborating with painters such as Robert Morris, Frank Stella, Bruce Nauman, and Andy Warhol. He lives and works in New York State and St Martin in the French West Indies. He has been a member of the New York Academy of Arts and Letters since 1988....

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Born 21 March 1887, in Érsekujvár; died 1967, in Budapest.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, graphic designer, engraver, collage artist, sculptor.

Dadaism, Constructivism.

Lajos Kassák ran away from home aged 13. He started his working life as a blacksmith and locksmith. He came into contact with the workers' movement and contributed to the Social Democrat magazine ...

Article

Croat, 20th century, male.

Born 1921, in Petrinja.

Sculptor, draughtsman, installation artist, performance artist. Multimedia.

Neo-Dadaism, Conceptual Art.

Gorgona Group.

Ivan Kozaric trained at the school of fine art in Zagreb and after an initial stay in Paris where he frequently returned, he started producing work in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 30 June 1936, in Neuilly-sur-Seine.

Painter, draughtsman, poet, sculptor, assemblage artist, installation artist, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Visual Poetry.

Surrealist group.

At the age of 15, Jean-Jacques Lebel, whose father was an art specialist, was exchanging letters with André Breton and mixing with the Surrealists (he was later excluded, with Alain Jouffroy, in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Sculptor of assemblages.

While refusing to be associated with any avant-garde, whether historical, modern or post-modern, Alain Léonési has produced Dadaist assemblies, Surrealist symbolical objects, New Realism accumulations and conceptual installations. Under the general title Fantasies, he assembled every kind of rejected crockery, taking great care with the play of shapes and colours. Collective exhibitions include: Cabinet d'Amateur, Sète and École des Beaux-Arts, Angers (...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Active in the United States.

Born 1929, in Stockholm.

Sculptor, painter, mixed media, watercolourist, lithographer, draughtsman, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

The son of a Swedish consular official, Claes Oldenburg arrived in the United States with his family in 1929. From 1946 to 1950, he studied art and literature at Yale. After working as a reporter and illustrator, he abandoned journalism in 1952 and attended the Art Institute in Chicago until 1954, exhibiting thereafter in local galleries. In 1956, he settled in New York, where he survived on odd jobs, through which he became familiar with the New York street scene. He met Allan Kaprow, the American artist, art theorist, and main creator of ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, female.

Active in the USA.

Born 1933, in Tokyo.

Painter, sculptor, performance artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

After settling in New York, Yoko Ono initially took an active role in the Fluxus group, organising concerts (particularly of La Monte Young) and putting up artists from the group (George Brecht, Allan Kaprow, George Segal). After marrying the singer John Lennon of the Beatles, she broke off from her own activities as an artist and took part in demonstrations for peace and for the emancipation of women. Following the assassination of her husband, she returned to her work as an artist....

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 1913, in London; died 12 May 2015.

Sculptor, Happenings artist.

Dadaism, Fluxus.

Robin Page attended Vancouver School of Art in Canada between 1952 and 1954. Back in England in 1959, he then went to Paris in 1960...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1 October 1936, in Deutschnofen (South Tyrol). Died 16 July 2012, in Burgenland, Austria.

Sculptor, draughtsman, mixed media, assemblage artist, environmental artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Conceptual Art.

From 1951 to 1955, Pichler attended the technical school in Innsbruck; then the academy of applied arts in Vienna. Having been awarded a French Government grant, he stayed in Paris ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 20 April 1894, in Modena; died 1956, in Rome.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman (including ink), collage artist, scenographer. Figures, portraits, landscapes, interiors, still-lifes. Stage costumes and sets, marionettes, wall decorations, furniture.

Futurism, Dadaism.

Groups: Cercle et Carré, Abstraction-Création, Group 40.

Enrico Prampolini studied briefly with Diulio Cambellotti at the Accademia di Belle Arti in, Rome, but was expelled in 1913. He wrote his own manifesto, ...