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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 July 1943, in Paris.

Painter.

Abramson was a pupil at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and has been influenced by Cubism and its legacy.

Article

Tunisian, 20th century, male.

Born 21 July 1921, in Tunis; died 1988.

Painter.

Dominique Agnello was somewhat influenced by Cubism, like many of his generation, but distanced himself from it with his use of strong colours and a tormented style.

From 1953, his works were exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants, at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, and at the Salon d'Automne....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1904, in Loreto; died 1992, in Milan.

Painter. Still-lifes.

Attilio Alfieri began to paint under the dual influence of Cubism and Futurism. Around 1930 he experimented also with the collage technique. Afterwards he went through a period of Classical Representation, and then evolved in the direction of an informal, material Abstraction. Thick and generous materials are fairly constant throughout his many different periods. This is particularly true of his Representational art and can be observed in the skilful brushwork of his series of vegetable still-lifes....

Article

Marcella Nesom-Sirhandi

(b Rampur, 1916; d Lahore, 1975).

Pakistani painter. A seminal figure, Shakir ‛Ali introduced Cubism to Lahore in 1952. His style quickly became fashionable there, was adopted in Karachi and dominated the art scene for more than a decade (see Pakistan, Islamic Republic of §III).

Shakir ‛Ali first studied painting at the Ukil Brothers Studio in Delhi. In 1938, after a year in that city, he joined the J. J. School of Art, Bombay, which promoted the British system of art education—drawing from cast and copying Old Masters. From the school’s director, Charles Gerrard, Shakir learned mural painting and was introduced to Impressionism. He also learned about indigenous art such as that at Ajanta (see Ajanta, §2, (i)) and the modern work of Roy, Jamini and Sher-Gil, Amrita.

After receiving a diploma in fine art from the Slade School of Art, London, Shakir ‛Ali studied with André Lhote in France. Moving to Prague, he joined the School of Industrial Design and studied textile design. From Prague, Shakir went to Lahore, where he was appointed Professor and head of the art department at the Mayo School of Arts. In ...

Article

Philip Cooper

(Charles Félix)

(b Paris, Jan 22, 1885; d 1961).

French critic and poet. His poetry was influenced by Joachim du Bellay (1522–60), Charles Baudelaire and Auguste Angellier (1848–1911), and the many volumes he published include La Féerie des heures (Paris and Lille, 1902) and L’Appartement des jeunes filles (Paris, 1919). He was briefly associated with the Abbaye de Créteil in 1907–08, and he moved to Paris from Lille in spring 1910, soon coming into contact with the Cubists. He was one of their earliest and most perceptive defenders. In his first article on art, a review of the Salon d’Automne of 1910, he wrote approvingly of the work of Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes and Henri Le Fauconnier as marking the final rout of Impressionism. Allard played a leading role in bringing these and other Cubists together for the first group exhibition at the Salon des Indépendants of 1911 and largely remained a supporter of Salon Cubism. He maintained a broad attitude towards Cubism, seeing it as a return to the balance and composure of classicism, blended with the more modern ideas of Henri Bergson. Initially unaware of the pioneering work of Picasso and Braque, he reacted with hostility in his article ‘Sur quelques peintres’ (...

Article

Hajo Düchting

[Apollinaire de Kostrowitzky, Guillaume Albert Wladimir Alexandre]

(b Rome, Aug 26, 1880; d Paris, Nov 9, 1918).

French poet and writer. He loved to hint at his ‘dark’ origins: he was the illegitimate son of Angélique-Alexandrine Kostrowitzky, an eccentric beauty from a Polish noble family under the protection of the Roman Curia, and Francesco Flugi d’Aspermont, a former officer in the Royal Army of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. When the liaison ended Apollinaire was placed under the wing of the Bishop of Monaco, Monseigneur Theuret, and went through an exciting period of travel and education in Catholic schools on the French Riviera, where his mother had settled. Apollinaire liked to ascribe his genesis to a cardinal or even to Pope Pius IX himself.

While still a schoolboy, Apollinaire took a keen interest in literature and poetry, not only in the work of the Symbolists Stéphane Mallarmé (1842–98) and Paul Verlaine (1844–96) but also in the writings of the Naturalist school. In ...

Article

French, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1960, in Paris.

Painter. Enamels. Still-lifes.

Gilles Apruzzese studied painting at a small atelier in Paris. His work, combining oil, acrylic and collage, was influenced by the cubism of Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. He has also experimented with enamel on copper....

Article

Joan Marter

[Aleksandr ]

(b Kiev, Ukraine, May 30, 1887; d New York, Feb 25, 1964).

Ukrainian sculptor, active in Paris and in the USA. He began studying painting and sculpture at the School of Art in Kiev in 1902 but was forced to leave in 1905 after criticizing the academicism of his instructors. In 1906 he went to Moscow, where, according to the artist, he participated in some group exhibitions (Archipenko, p. 68). In 1908 he established himself in Paris, where he rejected the most favoured contemporary sculptural styles, including the work of Rodin. After only two weeks of formal instruction at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts he left to teach himself sculpture by direct study of examples in the Musée du Louvre. By 1910 Archipenko was exhibiting with the Cubists at the Salon des Indépendants, and his work was shown at the Salon d’Automne from 1911 to 1913.

A variety of cultural sources lies behind Archipenko’s work. He remained indebted throughout his career to the spiritual values and visual effects found in the Byzantine culture of his youth and had a strong affinity for ancient Egyptian, Gothic, and primitive art that co-existed with the influence of modernist styles such as Cubism and Futurism....

Article

Philip Cooper

Reviser Tom Williams

Term that typically refers to sculpture made through the additive combination of found objects and materials. It was first coined by Jean Dubuffet (1901–85) in reference to his collages, but later was taken up by William Seitz for his important 1961 exhibition The Art of Assemblage at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Though Seitz presented assemblage as any form of artistic or literary juxtaposition, it has subsequently been applied primarily to sculpture.

The practice was developed by Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) around 1912, and it became a central component of movements such as Cubism, Constructivism, Dada, and Surrealism as well as Neo-Dada, Nouveau Réalisme, Funk art, and other trends during the postwar period. During the early 1960s, the term was often used almost interchangeably with “Junk art” to describe the work of figures such as Arman (1928–2005), John A. Chamberlain (1927–2011...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Chartres; died June 1988, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist.

Claude Augereau was a pupil at the École des Arts Appliqués in Paris before working with the Cubist Jean Metzinger. He took part in various annual Paris exhibitions, but later restricted himself to the Salon de Mai and the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles, where he was a committee member and designer of the ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 11 October 1891, in Cleveland (Ohio); died 30 December 1948, in Woodstock (New York), committed suicide.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, printmaker, lithographer. Genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views.

Precisionism (or Cubist Realism).

George Ault grew up in London where his father worked in ink manufacturing and studied at the Slade School of Fine Art and St John's Wood School of Art. He returned to the USA in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1933, near Hamburg.

Painter, watercolourist.

After painting austere compositions in sombre, tasteful colours, inspired by the cubism of Feininger, Gerhard Ausborn gravitated towards a purely abstract style that renounced figurative elements. In 2003, the Kunsthalle in Hamburg devoted an exhibition to him entitled ...

Article

(b Geneva, Feb 25, 1872; d Lausanne, Jan 1, 1938).

Swiss painter and multimedia artist . From 1890/91 she studied under Hugues Bovy (1841–1903) and Denise Sarkissof at the Ecole d’Art in Geneva. A travel scholarship enabled her to study in Munich for a year. From 1904 until the outbreak of World War I Bailly lived in Paris, where she associated with Cubist artists, including Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Fernand Léger, Marie Laurencin and Sonia Lewitska (1882–1914). From 1905 to 1926 she exhibited regularly at the Salon d’Automne. From 1906 to 1910 her work was influenced by Fauvism, and from 1910 she became interested in Cubism and Futurism: Equestrian Fantasy with Pink Lady (1913; Zurich, Gal. Strunskaja) is reminiscent of the work of Gino Severini or Franz Marc in its rhythmic movement and planar fragmentation of horses and riders into coloured patterns. Other paintings of this period that are also indebted to these movements include ...

Article

Colette Giraudon

[Fr.: ‘laundry boat’]

Complex of artists’ studios in Paris established in 1889. Planning permission to convert a wooden building at 13, Rue Ravignan in the Montmartre district from a locksmith’s workshop into artists’ studios was sought by its owner on 19 June 1889, and the restoration work was entrusted to the architect Paul Vasseur. The origins of the name are uncertain, but one theory that has been proposed is that it was the writer Max Jacob who chose in this way to refer to the ramshackle and unsteady structure. The first well-known painter to settle there was Maxime Maufra in 1892, but it was the arrival in 1904 of Pablo Picasso, whose reputation was then still unestablished, that brought the place to life. Picasso worked at night, and his studio became a meeting-place not only for artists and writers resident there but for others who lived in the Montparnasse district in the south of Paris, which from ...

Article

Italian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Switzerland.

Born 1956, in Italy.

Painter.

Domenico Battista trained in Caracas from 1967 to 1971.

From an abstract-geometric style he developed a representational approach derived from cubism and constructivism. He used shapes outlined in black to fix a composition painted in whole, clear tones. He first showed his work in Venezuela in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1919, in Cluny.

Painter.

Baudinière lives in St-Tropez (Var). He was a follower of Albert Gleizes and was influenced like him by the developments in Cubism leading to Abstraction and spirituality. In 1947 he participated in the historic exhibition mounted in the earliest years of the Galerie Maeght in Paris, ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 4 December 1937, in Paris.

Painter. Figure compositions, figures, portraits. Stage costumes and sets.

Jacques Bazin began painting when still at school. Initially influenced by Cubism, he soon discovered Surrealism and was a friend of Dalí for some 20 years. He began exhibiting work in ...

Article

Lenka Bydžovská

(b Velké Lišice, nr Chlumec nad Cidlinou, Jan 22, 1883; d Prague, March 27, 1979).

Czech painter, writer and theorist. In 1902–4 he studied at the Prague School of Applied Art and in 1904–7 at the Academy of Fine Arts. After visiting Dresden, Berlin, Munich and Paris, he returned to Prague and joined Eight, the, which had been set up by his former fellow students; he exhibited at the group’s second show in 1908. His early work was influenced by the ideas of Bohumil Kubišta, with whom he shared a workshop. Although basically an uncomplicated, sensual painter, he attempted to keep well informed about contemporary artistic trends. In 1910–14 he became a fervent devotee of Cubism and, together with Emil Filla, adhered faithfully to the style of Picasso and Braque. He was one of the founders (1911) of the Group of Plastic Artists and contributed theoretical articles to its journal, Umělecký měsíčník. No consistent reconstruction of his paintings before World War I can be made because most of his Cubist works were later destroyed. His process of crystallization in relation to the painting of space culminated in ...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Born 1893; died 1976.

Sculptor.

Christian Berg belongs to the pioneering generation of modern Swedish sculpture. Influenced from the 1920s by the rhythm of geometric Cubism, he was also interested in the so-called 'classical' sculpture of 1900. He sculpted reliefs with hollows and negative volumes, as well as reliefs in the round with positive volumes. In the scale and harmony of his sculpture, Berg approaches the spirit of antiquity in his reflective and well-constructed work....

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Born 1906; died 1989.

Painter. Figures, still-lifes.

Bo Beskow painted Cubist themes of his own choosing - static portraits and still-lifes - in a successful synthesis of Picasso and Matisse. His synthetic and flat graphic style recalls Matisse's decorative characteristics.

Stockholm...