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Article

Matico Josephson

(b Lithuania, 1920; d New York, March 6, 1998).

American painter and teacher of Lithuanian birth. Baranik migrated to the United States in 1938 and served in the US Army in World War II. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1946–8) and at the Art Students League in New York, where he met painter May Stevens, whom he later married. Stevens and Baranik lived in Paris from 1948 until the end of 1951, initially studying at the Académie Julian; Baranik then studied in the atelier of Fernand Léger (1881–1955).

In 1952, Baranik first showed at the ACA Gallery in New York, which represented prewar realist school painters. He left the gallery in 1955, joining the Roko Gallery by 1958. Through contact with the Abstract Expressionists, and especially with fellow Lithuanian Ad Reinhardt (1913–67), Baranik moved away from the rough materiality of his Parisian work. In the 1960s, figural elements appear on large canvases that he treated like color field paintings....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1921, in Florence.

Painter.

Vinicio Berti started exhibiting in 1939. He went through a realist stage but went on to work as an abstract expressionist. He showed his work at the 1959 Rome Quadriennale and was awarded the Fiorino Prize in Florence in ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 7 July 1921, in Verona.

Sculptor.

Bogoni exhibited highly abstract Expressionist sculpture at the 1966 Venice Biennale .

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1951.

Painter.

Christian Florio studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons, where he lives and works.

Though he was initially an abstract expressionist, Florio's exuberant compositions include figurative elements within an abstract framework, giving the impression of an old-fashioned mind expressing itself in a postmodern style. In contrast to these, he also creates works in a hyperrealist style, reproducing the folds in a piece of paper, or the metal blades of an awning. Reality, however, is always suggested rather than explicit; and serves as a point of departure for a simple architecture consisting of flat planes, occasionally broken by elusive markings....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Painter.

Sébastien de Ganay first exhibited in Paris in a solo exhibition at the Galerie Jacqueline Moussion.

His work is suggestive of Abstract Expressionism but is based on an original process. He covers the stretcher with sheets of plastic film containing paint and waits for several weeks for the colour to set....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1950, in Chalon-sur-Saône.

Painter.

Patrick Germinagni was a student at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons and Paris, the latter of which he attended in 1974. Abstract Expressionist, his painting, especially on papier-mâché forms, falls into the informal. Graphic marks and sensual references can be deciphered, such as the imprint of bodies, the idea of a face resting on hands, and questioning eyes. He created an art studio for the inmates of the St Joseph Prison in Lyons. He has shown work in group exhibitions, including the ...

Article

Cynthia Goodman

(Georg Albert)

(b Weissenberg, Bavaria, March 21, 1880; d New York, Feb 17, 1966).

American painter, teacher and theorist of German birth. He moved with his family to Munich in 1886 and in 1896 left home to become assistant to the director of public works of the State of Bavaria; he distinguished himself with a number of inventions, including an electromagnetic comptometer, a radar device for ships, a sensitized light bulb and a portable freezer unit for military purposes. In spite of his parents’ strong objection and their hopes for his career as a scientist, in 1898 he enrolled in the art school run by Moritz Heymann (b 1870) in Munich. Hofmann subsequently studied with a succession of teachers and was particularly influenced by Willi Schwarz (b 1889), who familiarized him with French Impressionism, a style that affected his earliest known paintings, such as Self-portrait (1902; New York, Emmerich Gal., see Goodman, 1986, p. 14).

In 1903 Hofmann was introduced by Schwarz to ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1929, in London.

Painter, environmental artist.

Minimal Art.

Peter Joseph is a self-taught painter who worked initially in advertising. Joseph's painting shows the influence of the American Abstract Expressionists - notably Newman, Rothko and Kelly; his work is also comparable in effect to Minimalist art. His canvases play on colour tonalities, and feature a sensitive use of light, sometimes heightened by 'all-over' painting techniques ( ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 30 April 1931, in Brussels.

Painter.

Pierre Auguste Lahaut was a self-taught artist. Though he can be categorised loosely as an Abstract Expressionist, his dull blue-green tonalities and green landscapes vacillate between abstraction and reality. His later work is more muted and develops a more ambiguous spatial and pictorial landscape, with large areas of virgin canvas juxtaposed with assorted fragments of reality - a garland, a portion of a flower, a hand, a finger. These more recent compositions feature two or more uniform squares or rectangles....

Article

Joan Marter

(b Alexandria, Egypt, May 4, 1913; d Easthampton, NY, Dec 30, 2003).

American sculptor. Lassaw’s parents were Russian, but he spent his childhood in Egypt, where he attended a French lycée. In 1921 he immigrated with his family to New York, where he began his artistic training with traditional clay modelling at the Brooklyn Children’s Museum and in 1927 at the Clay Club. In 1931–2 he attended evening classes at the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design. After modelling clay figures, in 1933 he turned to abstract sculpture, and was among the first American sculptors to do so in the 1930s. Early open-space constructions such as Sculpture in Steel (1938; New York, Whitney) combine biomorphic elements with Constructivist methods. The leaflike elements suspended from a metal bar seem indebted to Alberto Giacometti’s Surrealist sculptures of the 1930s.

Lassaw studied the welded constructions of Julio González and Pablo Picasso, which were illustrated in French periodicals, and he was attracted to their openwork compositions in industrial metals. While Lassaw’s earliest constructions were made of reinforced plaster on pipe and wire armatures, by ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1955.

Painter.

Alix Le Meleder had a solo show in Villeneuve-d'Ascq in 1994. After painting portraits inspired by the Abstract Expressionism of de Kooning and Jorn, she gave up any form of figurative painting in favour of works that were entirely gestural and reflected her day-to-day sensations. On ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born in Berlin; died 1990.

Painter.

Dominique Lorsch studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She used an Expressionist style and sometimes that of Abstract Expressionism, but her painting is more elegant in style than violent. She exhibited her work regularly at the Salon d'Automne, the Salon des Indépendants, the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, the Salon Comparaisons, the Salon des Peintres Témoins de leur Temps and the Salon du Dessin et de la Peinture à l'Eau. She exhibited collections of paintings in solo exhibitions in 1966 in Paris and subsequently in Monte Carlo, Deauville, Los Angeles, and again in Paris in 1973....

Article

Whitney Chadwick

(b Balagne, Jan 4, 1896; d Paris, Oct 28, 1987).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, and stage designer. His work played an important role in the development of both Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism, although his independence, iconoclasm, and abrupt stylistic transitions make him difficult to classify. Masson was admitted to the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts et l’Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Brussels at the age of 11. Through his teacher Constant Montald, he met the Belgian poet Emile Verhaeren (1855–1916), who persuaded Masson’s parents to send him to Paris for further training. Masson joined the French infantry in 1915 and fought in the battles of the Somme; he was gravely wounded, and his wartime experiences engendered in him a profound philosophy about human destiny and stimulated his search for a personal imagery of generation, eclosion, and metamorphosis.

Masson’s early works, particularly the paintings of 1922 and 1923 on a forest theme (e.g. Forest, 1923; see Leiris and Limbour, p. 93), reflected the influence of André Derain, but by late ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 1929, in Basel.

Painter, engraver.

Bruno Muller studied for a year with Pierre Francastel at the École des Hautes Études in Paris. He evolved an Expressionist style which took on a progressively Abstract Expressionist flavour, with large, violently coloured, concise forms which bring to mind not the content but the sculptural vocabulary of Pouget or Cristoforou. He produced single designs....

Article

Jure Mikuž

(b Velika Pisanica, nr Bjelovar, May 4, 1921; d Zagreb, Jan 2, 2005).

Croatian painter, printmaker, stage designer, graphic designer and illustrator. Before World War II he studied at the Zagreb Academy. In 1943 he joined the partisan forces where he founded, together with another painter Zlatko Prica (1916–2002), an engraver’s printshop and edited a portfolio of prints in illustration of the epic poem Pit by I. G. Kovačić. In 1951 he abandoned his Post-Impressionist style of painting Adriatic landscapes after a stay in the USA and Canada. In 1953 he exhibited in Belgrade and Zagreb the cycle Experience of America (1950–51), which contained about 30 paintings and was greatly criticized. These pictures (now Zagreb, Gal. Mod. A. and Mun. A. G.; Belgrade, Min. Foreign Affairs; priv. cols) conveyed impressions of American megalopoles such as Pittsburgh and New York in the manner of American Abstract Expressionism. Mimetic elements began to disappear from his work, and by the late 1950s Murtić developed his own dramatic brushwork. Around ...

Article

Austrian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Vienna.

Painter.

Thomas Reinhold's style evolved from Abstract Expressionism, which he combines with automatism and emotion. He fills his palette with broken colours. He took part in collective exhibitions at the Neue Galerie, Graz (1981), in Trieste (...

Article

Bonnie Clearwater

[Rothkowitz, Marcus]

(b Dvinsk, Russia [now Daugavpils, Latvia], Sept 25, 1903; d New York, Feb 25, 1970).

American painter and draughtsman of Russian birth. He was one of the major figures of Abstract Expressionism and an important influence on the development of Colour field painting.

In 1913 he immigrated with his mother and sister to the USA, where they were reunited with his father and two older brothers, who had settled in Portland, OR, a few years earlier. As a youth in Portland, Rothko excelled scholastically and in particular pursued interests in literature, music, and social studies. From 1921 to 1923 he attended Yale University on a scholarship, but he left in his third year without graduating. He moved to New York, where he sporadically attended a few courses at the Art Students League, including a painting class with Max Weber, which constituted his only formal training in art. Essentially self-taught, Rothko educated himself by attending exhibitions and visiting the studios of artists such as Milton Avery, whose paintings of simplified forms and flat areas of colour suggested possibilities for Rothko’s own work....

Article

Joyce Zemans

(Leonard)

(b Shoeburyness, Essex, Feb 4, 1909; d Vancouver, BC, Nov 22, 1998).

Canadian painter, draughtsman and writer of English birth. In 1912 his family emigrated to British Columbia. Educated at Victoria College, BC (1926–7), and the Provincial Normal School in Victoria (1929), he studied art at the Euston Road Art School, London (1937), the André Lhote School of Art, Paris (1938), and the Art Students’ League, New York (1948–9). From 1929 to 1937 he taught art to children in Vancouver and in 1938 joined the Vancouver School of Art, where he was head of painting and drawing from 1945 to 1966. In 1944–5 he served with the Canadian war artists. In 1955 he became the first instructor at the Emma Lake Workshop, Regina College, Sask. He also executed costume and poster designs for theatre and dance, as well as murals for Edmonton Airport, the National Arts Centre, Ottawa, and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in Vancouver....

Article

(b New York, Dec 31, 1922; d Ioannina, Greece, Feb 2, 1997).

American painter and illustrator. Born of Greek immigrant parents, he was awarded a scholarship to the American Artists’ School in New York, where he studied sculpture under Simon Kennedy and Joseph Konzal (1905–94). Abandoning sculpture, he began to devote himself to painting in 1939, a medium in which he was entirely self-taught. In 1941 he opened a framing shop in New York, which he ran until 1948. There he met Arshile Gorky and Fernand Léger and also framed several pictures by Paul Klee for the Nierendorf Gallery. He had his first one-man show in 1943 at Betty Parsons’s Wakefield Gallery in New York. That year he also met Adolph Gottlieb and Barnett Newman and in 1947 Mark Rothko, Kurt Seligmann, and Mark Tobey. His paintings of the 1940s drew on a variety of sources including mythology, natural forms, and Oriental calligraphy and were executed in a rough textural manner. ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Active from 1950 to 1973 active in the USA.

Born 14 March 1929, in Charvieu.

Painter, watercolourist.

Pascal Tchakmakian lived in the USA from 1950 to 1973.His work is strongly influenced by American Abstract Expressionism. Tchakmakian produced isolated symbols that are both spontaneous and calligraphic. Also in the spirit of the Far East, he produced kakemonos....