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Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b 1872; d Srinagar, 1955).

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of 1902–3 (see Delhi, §II), under George Watt. In 1909 he took up employment in Calcutta as principal of the Government School of Art and curator of the art section of the Indian Museum. In 1927 he retired from the Indian Educational Service to take up an appointment as secretary and curator of the Victoria Memorial Hall in Calcutta, where he remained until 1947. After this he lived on a houseboat on the Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.

Brown’s earliest publications included a contribution to the catalogue of the Delhi Exhibition and a descriptive guide to the Department of Industrial Art at Lahore Museum in ...

Article

Anne R. Morand

(b Robeline, LA, Feb 8, 1890; d Tulsa, OK, May 6, 1962).

American oil magnate, patron and collector. He started the Gilcrease Oil Company in 1922 on land he had received in the Indian land allotments before the creation of the State of Oklahoma in 1907. With the profits from his company Gilcrease began collecting material relating to the development of American culture in the late 1930s. Of partly Indian descent, he felt he owed a debt to the Indian heritage that had allowed him to obtain his wealth. He therefore specialized in collecting the art of the American West, acquiring over 200 works each by George Catlin, Alfred Jacob Miller and Thomas Moran. At the time of his death Gilcrease owned over 10,000 works of art (paintings, drawings, prints and sculpture) by over 400 American artists, spanning 500 years. The art collections were supplemented by large anthropological and archival sections. In 1955 Gilcrease deeded his collection to the City of Tulsa. He eventually gave the museum building and the acreage surrounding it, so as to form the Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art....

Article

[emerging art markets]

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew 2014). Works of art made by modern and contemporary artists from all four countries regularly fetch more than $1 million at auction.

The rise of the BRICs has coincided with the global integration of what used to be local art markets: demand for and supply of particular artists or artistic movements may now be dispersed across the globe. The boom which global art markets have witnessed in the new millennium can be attributed partially to new buyers from countries like China and Russia developing an interest in art, both old and new. In describing the emergence of the BRICs, the focus in this article will be on modern and contemporary art, since that is where market development has been most significant, both qualitatively and quantitatively....

Article

Indar Pasricha

(b Patna, May 9, 1917; d Oct 16, 1987).

Indian collector. He was born into a poor family, with which he spent the formative years of his life. These years in comparative poverty, however, gave him an awareness of life and a depth of understanding and sensitivity that he most certainly would not have had if he had been born into the wealthy banking family that eventually adopted him. He became the heir to a property and banking business that allowed him to indulge his passions: Hindi and Sanskrit literature and, as an adjunct, Indian painting and sculpture.

He began to collect Indian miniatures seriously in the early 1940s. Patna, which was the base of his adopted inheritance, had at this time three important collectors who knew each other and Kanoria: the barrister P. C. Manuk, Miss G. M. Coles and Mr Jalan. As chance would have it, William George Archer (see Archer family §(1)) was posted as District Magistrate to Patna in ...

Article

Anand Krishna

(b Banaras [now Varanasi], Nov 7, 1892; d 1980).

Indian collector and writer. He is best known for his monumental collection of Indian art at the Bharat Kala Bhavan in Varanasi. Every piece reflects his highly developed sense of aesthetics, discriminating taste and in-born connoisseurship. The collection spans a very wide range of Indian art and (mainly Hindi literary) documents, local culture etc. Rai Krishnadasa’s early career was as a Hindi author, but he motivated Moti Chandra, Anand Krishna, N. C. Mehta and others in the study of Indian painting and introduced many of them to Indian art in general. Such art historians as William George Archer and Mildred Archer (see Archer family §(1)) took up laconic statements made in Bharat Ki Chitrakala. Later scholars, such as Stuart Cary Welch, Robert Skelton, Milo C. Beach and Wladimir Zwalf, drew inspiration from him. Rai Krishnadasa was the first to establish that Hamza cloth painting originated under Akbar (...

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...

Article

Sukarno  

H. I. R. Hinzler

(b Surabaya, East Java, 6 June 1901; d Jakarta, 20 June 1970). Indonesian politician and collector. After education (1915–21) at Dutch schools in Surabaya, he studied civil engineering at the Institute of Technology in Bandung (1921–6). He became active in the Indonesian nationalist movement and was arrested, imprisoned and deported several times by the Dutch. As President (1945–67) of the Republic of Indonesia he stressed the need for the development of a national art and did much to encourage artists. A founder in 1943 of the Yogyakarta Painters Union, the Centre of People’s Power (Pusat Tenaga Rakyat, PUTERA), he favoured the curriculum at the Yogyakarta Academy, which emphasized tradition and nationalism and rejected the Western style of the Bandung Academy in the 1950s. He took over existing pre-war collections of paintings and added items until his death.

Lee Man-Fong, ed.: Paintings and Statues from the Collection of President Sukarno of the Republic of Indonesia...