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Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...


(b Falun, April 11, 1860; d Stockholm, May 7, 1946).

Swedish architect, draughtsman and painter. After studying at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan and the Kungliga Akademien för de fria Konsterna (1878–84), with his artist-wife Anna Boberg (b 1864) he made extensive journeys in Italy, France, Spain and the rest of the Mediterranean region, also visiting Britain. Early on he was impressed by the work of H. H. Richardson, and this was reinforced by his visit to the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893) and to the studio of Louis Sullivan. Boberg’s highly personal style amalgamated these American influences with impressions from Italy, Spain and North Africa, and his ornamentation in particular is connected both to Sullivan and to the Moorish and Byzantine. Gävle Fire Station (1890) shows clearly the Richardsonian use of the Romanesque with round-arched doorways in heavy granite, picturesque asymmetry and colonette motifs. Industrial buildings for the Stockholm Gas and Electricity Works in the 1890s demonstrate Boberg’s effective use of colourful brick and stone. The surviving portal of an electricity station (destr.) in central Stockholm is decorated by ornamentation of electric light-bulbs with a Sullivanesque sharpness, and postal motifs of a similar nature adorn the Central Post Office (...


Pekka Korvenmaa

Finnish architectural partnership formed in 1896 by Herman Gesellius (1874–1916), Armas Lindgren and Eliel Saarinen (see Saarinen family, §1), the year before they graduated from the Polytekniska Institutet in Helsinki. It dissolved in 1907, although Lindgren left the office in 1905. National and international recognition came in 1900, when they designed the Finnish pavilion for the Exposition Universelle in Paris, having won the competition for its design in 1898. The design linked a number of international influences as well as particularly Finnish elements (motifs such as bears, squirrels and pine cones) and forms from Art Nouveau. It also included neo-Romanesque elements reminiscent of the H. H. Richardson school in the USA. The interior of the pavilion’s cupola was decorated with paintings by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. The overall effect was of an Arts and Crafts ambience. It was one of the first examples of the architecture of ...


S. G. Fyodorov and B. M. Kirikov

(Ivanovich) [Lidval, Johann-Friedrich]

(b St Petersburg, June 1, 1870; d Stockholm, March 14, 1945).

Swedish architect, active in Russia. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, from 1890 to 1896, where he spent his final years in the studio of Leonty Benois. He subsequently established a reputation as one of the most important architects in St Petersburg in the early 20th century. In his early works there he created an original version of northern European Art Nouveau (Rus. modern), related to Swedish and Finnish National Romantic architecture but distinguished by its strict restraint and elegant forms. In the block of flats on Kamennoostrovsky Prospect 1–3 that belonged to his mother (1899–1904), he used a deep cour d’honneur to form a spacious nucleus to the well-equipped and comfortable complex. The sophisticated plastic quality of the buildings, which are of various heights, the free design and textural variety of the façades and the stylized motifs of flora and fauna all distinguish this as northern ...


Paula Kivinen

(b Tampere, May 20, 1872; d Helsinki, Dec 27, 1966).

Finnish architect. She qualified as an architect in 1896, and in 1898 she travelled on a scholarship in central Europe, England and Scotland studying stone and brick construction, as well as school architecture. Lönn was based in Tampere between 1898 and 1911. Her first projects were houses and schools in various parts of Finland—for which she adapted the innovations she had seen in Britain. The Tampere Central Fire Station (1908), her best building, is still in use: its picturesque, loose massing reflects a ground-plan that enhances the building’s efficiency. It also suits the castle-like character lent by such details as the turrets, characteristic of National Romanticism in Finland—of which this station is a good example. She was in Jyväskylä from 1911 to 1918 and was invited to design buildings for Johannes Parviainen Factories Ltd in Säynätsalo. She in fact designed them all. Estonia Theatre in Tallinn (1913...


Pekka Korvenmaa


(b Kälviä, Vaasa, Aug 10, 1870; d Helsinki, March 14, 1956).

Finnish architect. With Eliel Saarinen, he was one of the leading Finnish architects of the early 20th century. Although his career spanned six decades, his most active period was between 1893 and 1920.

Sonck studied architecture at the Polytechnic Institute of Finland in Helsinki from 1890 to 1894. While still a student in 1894 he won an important competition for the church of St Michael, Turku. The lengthy design and building period (1894–1905) reflected more general stylistic developments then taking place in Finnish architecture. Brick was chosen for the church, and Sonck went to Germany in 1894 to study brick construction there. However, the German-derived, brick Gothic Revival style of the early designs was subsequently infused with Jugendstil influences, and stone, granite and soapstone also came to be used. This process of development culminated in the church of St John (1900–07; now Tampere Cathedral). This is Sonck’s masterpiece and one of the key monuments of Finnish ...


(b Hedemora, Dalecarlia, April 17, 1870; d 1952).

Swedish architect. He studied under Isak Gustaf Clason at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (Royal Institute of Technology) in Stockholm (1889–93) and in Clason’s studio. With him he designed Hjularöd (1895), a romantic brick castle in Scania. His personal style was developed from the influence of the British Arts and Crafts Movement, the work of M. H. Baillie Scott and Jugendstil. He became a leading exponent of National Romanticism. Manorial and villa projects dominate his early work. Tjolöholm Castle (1897–1906) is a baronial country house in granite, with exquisite interiors. For his own home, Villa Tallom (1904) at Stocksund, he developed the jointed log-timber style of his native province, Dalecarlia. With the winning entry for Engelbrekt Church (1906) in Stockholm, however, he entered the field of ecclesiastical architecture, which was his main concern thereafter.

Completed in 1912, the church rises from a terraced rocky site as a cluster of brick volumes with high-pitched tiled roofs and a tall side tower terminated by an open-work wrought-iron crown. The broad nave with a high timber roof is crossed by vaulted transepts formed by sequences of parabolic arches; arches of this type also separate the nave and the crossing. Characteristic features are the linear chiselling of the granite on the lower walls, both externally and internally, and the similar rustic treatment of woodwork and painting. The small Gustavus Adolphus Chapel (...