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Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1900, in Marciana Marina (Livorno); died 1971, in Milan.

Painter, ceramicist, illustrator, scenographer, writer. Stage costumes.

Futurism.

Giovanni Acquaviva studied philosophy and law at the University of Pisa, while devoting himself to illustration at the same time. He founded the Futurist group ...

Article

Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 10 February 1948, in Ajaccio (Corsica).

Assemblage artist, performance artist.

Elie Cristiani abandoned his psycho-pedagogical studies in 1971 to work as an artisan, mainly in ceramics and statuary. He learned his trade in various workshops in France and Italy and in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 10 June 1880, in Chatou; died 10 September 1954, in Garches, as the result of an accident.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman (red chalk/charcoal/ink), sculptor (including bronze), engraver (wood/metal), lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, hunting scenes, scenes with figures, horse racing scenes, landscapes, waterscapes, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, seascapes, architectural views, still-lifes, flowers, fruit...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA since 1975.

Born 9 July 1937, in Bradford (West Yorkshire).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, collage artist, draughtsman, engraver (etching/aquatint), lithographer, illustrator, draughtsman, photographer. Portraits, scenes with figures, interiors with figures, landscapes, still-lifes. Stage sets, stage costumes, painted ceramics...

Article

(b Paris, Oct 31, 1883; d Paris, June 8, 1956).

French painter, stage designer and illustrator. After studying porcelain painting at the Sèvres factory (1901) and drawing in Paris under the French flower painter Madelaine Lemaire (1845–1928), in 1903–4 she studied at the Académie Humbert in Paris, where she met Georges Braque and Francis Picabia. In 1907 she first exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants, met Picasso at Clovis Sagot’s gallery and through Picasso was introduced to the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. Laurencin and Apollinaire were soon on intimate terms, their relationship lasting until 1912.

Laurencin became a regular associate of the painters and poets associated with the Bateau-Lavoir, who included Picasso, Braque, Gris, Max Jacob and André Salmon. She was present at the banquet given by Picasso in honour of Henri Rousseau in 1908 and produced the first version of Apollinaire and his Friends (1908; Baltimore, MD, Mus. A.) in a highly simplified style, in which she pictured herself and the poet with Picasso and his companion Fernande Olivier. Both this and a larger version with additional figures (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 4 February 1881, in Argentan; died 18 August 1955, in Gif-sur-Yvette.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, ceramicist, illustrator, mosaicist, designer, film producer. Designs for tapestries, designs for stained glass, stage sets, stage costumes.

Puteaux Group, Section d’Or, Association of Revolutionary Writers and Artists, Espace...

Article

Judi Freeman

(b Argentan, Orne, Feb 4, 1881; d Gif-sur-Yvette, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 17, 1955).

French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas.

Born in rural Normandy, Léger often said that he was of ‘peasant stock’. Although his father was a cattle merchant, Léger was sent by his family to Caen in 1897 to be an apprentice in an architect’s office, where he remained until 1899. In 1900 he went to Paris and again worked in an architect’s office as a draughtsman. After compulsory military service in ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Born 18 December 1884.

Sculptor.

Elek Lux studied in Budapest, Munich and Brussels, and settled in Budapest.

He produced busts and small sculptures, including a series of female dancers, bronzes and terracottas.

Budapest (Mus. of Fine Arts)

Budapest (Történeti Múz.): Boxer...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 27 January 1921, in Boulogne-sur-Mer. Died 10 June 2012.

Painter (including mixed media/gouache), watercolourist, performance artist, medallist, ceramicist. Designs for mosaics.

Georges Mathieu was born in Boulogne-sur-Mer. He left for Versailles in 1933 then, during the war, went to Lille, where he studied law, philosophy and obtained an degree in English. In 1942 he worked as a teacher in a secondary school in Douai. He was then an interpreter and teacher for the American armies in Cambrai, Biarritz and Istres. In 1947 he settled in Paris, and was elected to the Institut de France....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born in New York.

Engraver, sculptor, designer. Stage costumes and sets, murals, ceramics.

Valerie J. Maynard studied at the New School, New York, and Goddard College, Plainfield (Vermont). She is based in Baltimore (Maryland). She has exhibited in Sweden, Nigeria and, in the USA, at the Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, in ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 6 November 1944, in Glasgow.

Performance artist, painter, sculptor, installation artist, printmaker, ceramicist.

Conceptual Art, Land Art.

Bruce McLean studied at Glasgow School of Art (1961-1963), and at St Martins School of Art in London (1963-1966) under Anthony Caro, Phillip King and William Tucker. He has taught at the Croydon School of Art (...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 13 January 1895, in Jaén (Andalusia); died 4 April 1984, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, ceramicist. Portraits, figures, nudes, landscapes, still-lifes, flowers. Stage costumes and sets, posters.

Manuel Ángeles Ortiz learned to paint in the studio of José Larrocha in Granada and then went to Madrid where he was taught by Cecilio Pla. A childhood friend of Federico García Lorca, he was linked to the group of writers, artists and poets known as ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1904.

Born 25 October 1881, in Málaga; died 8 April 1973, in Mougins, France.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman (including ink), collage artist, monotype artist, sculptor, assemblage sculptor, ceramicist, printmaker (etching/drypoint/copper/aquatint/linocuts), lithographer, illustrator, writer. Mythological subjects, figure compositions, figures, nudes, interiors with figures, local scenes (bullfighting), scenes with figures, portraits, self-portraits, landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes, animals, flowers...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 12 February 1905, in Bully-les-Mines (Pas-de-Calais); died 14 May 1993, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including charcoal/wash), engraver, potter, scenographer. Figures, portraits, nudes, rustic scenes, fishing scenes, seascapes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes, animals. Wall decorations, stage costumes and sets...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 May 1871, in Paris, France; died 13 February 1958, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver, potter. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes. Stage sets, designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries.

Georges Rouault completed his primary education in 1885 and was apprenticed to stained-glass artists – first the Tamonis, then Hirsch. He received a direct offer from Albert Besnard for stained-glass windows for the School of Pharmacy to be made from his design sketches, but he refused out of loyalty to his employer. He was encouraged to consider painting as a career, having been introduced to the appreciation of art by his grandfather, Alexandre Champdavoine, who, modest white-collar worker though he was, knew and admired Honoré Daumier, Gustave Courbet, and Édouard Manet. Rouault achieved entry to the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1891, first in Elie Delaunay’s studio, then in Gustave Moreau’s (where he met Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, Rudolf Lehmann, Henri Evenepoel, and others). Though he failed twice at the Prix de Rome, he won the Prix Chenavard in 1894 and, by 1900, he had obtained a mention and a bronze medal. In 1903, as Gustave Moreau’s executor, he became the curator of the Musée Gustave Moreau in Paris....

Article

Mark Allen Svede

(b nr Cēsis, April 28, 1896; d Tbilisi, Georgia, July 14, 1944).

Latvian painter, printmaker, ceramicist, interior designer, tage and film set designer and theorist. He was the foremost ideologue for modernism in Latvia and was one of its greatest innovators. His militant defence of avant-garde principles befitted his experience as a soldier and as one of the artists who, after World War I, was denied a studio by the city officials and staged an armed occupation of the former premises of the Riga Art School. At the end of the war he painted in an Expressionist manner: In Church (1917; Riga, priv. col., see Suta, 1975, p. 19), for example, is an exaltation of Gothic form and primitivist rendering. Unlike his peers Jāzeps Grosvalds and Jēkabs Kazaks, he was extremely interested in Cubism and Constructivism, the theories of which informed his paintings, drawings, prints and occasional architectural projects of the 1920s. At this time he and his wife, the painter ...

Article

Daniela Mrázková

(b Bohuňovice, July 27, 1934).

Czech photographer. He trained as a porcelain modeller in Karlovy Vary and studied stage design in Prague. He took up photography seriously in 1958. He first worked as a graphic artist in advertising, then as a photographer at the Museum of Industrial Art in Prague and from 1983 freelance. From the beginning Svoboda intentionally followed the style, and even the lifestyle, of Josef Sudek. Svoboda concentrated exclusively on the world of intimate images, photographing static objects belonging to his immediate surroundings and expressing intimate feelings through depictions of his flat or workplace. He enlarged from medium or large format negatives, and light plays a meaningful role in his images....

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active in France after 1920 (naturalised French citizen 1942).

Born 1 May 1902, in a suburb of Moscow; died 12 June 1978, in Roquebrune Cap-Martin or Monte Carlo.

Painter, watercolourist, lithographer. Figures, portraits, scenes with figures, interiors with figures, horse racing scenes, landscapes, harbour scenes, seascapes, still-lifes...