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Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Madrid, 1942).

Spanish painter, sculptor and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Madrid he came under the influence of Pop art during a stay in London in 1965. On settling again in Madrid in that year he began to concentrate on images of movement, as in the screenprint Story of the Man Who Falls I, for which he was awarded a prize at the Kraków Biennale in 1966. He continued to explore movement through serial forms and stereotyped images in plexiglass constructions such as the Changeable Movement series (1967) and from 1968 used computers as part of this process. These interests led to sculptures and paintings titled Transformable Movements, which he presented in association with aleatoric music.

Alexanco became increasingly involved with performance and collaborated with the Spanish composer Luis de Pablo (b 1930) on Soledad interrumpida (1971) and Historia natural...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Wernigerode.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Otmar Alt trained in Berlin, where he lived, exhibiting since 1965 in private German galleries. He integrated well with his generation. His paintings have very jagged forms and clear colours. He might have been distantly compared with Miró, if he had not been able to adapt this style to the cheerful aesthetics of Pop Art....

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b São Paulo, 1935).

Brazilian painter and printmaker. After studying engraving in São Paulo, he moved to New York in 1959 to complete his studies at the Pratt Graphic Center, where his contact with international Pop art merged with his own interest in Brazilian popular imagery, for example in the portfolio of woodcuts Mine and Yours (1967). Immediately afterwards he began painting ambiguous and ironic still-lifes collectively titled Brasíliana, which use bananas as symbols of underdevelopment and exploitation, for example BR-1 SP (1970; São Paulo, Pin. Estado) and Bananas (1971; Washington, DC, Mus. Mod. A. Latin America). In 1971 he won a trip abroad in the National Salon of Modern Art (Rio de Janeiro), which took him again to New York between 1972 and 1973. On his return to São Paulo he began the series Battlegrounds, in which he submitted the previously reclining bananas to slashing, torture and putrefaction. Subsequently shapes were reorganized into configurations of an undramatic Surrealism, playful, colourful, tumescent and as firmly rooted as ever in his native Brazil and Latin America....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 1929, in New York.

Painter, draughtswoman. Artists’ books.

Pop Art, Identity Art (Feminist Art).

Ida Applebroog studied at the New York Institute of Applied Arts and Sciences and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. She lived briefly in California, teaching at the University of California, San Diego, and exhibiting her sculptures locally (as Ida Horowitz). After moving to New York in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1930.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Allan d'Arcangelo studied at the University of Buffalo until 1953. In 1956 he went to New York and lived in Mexico from 1958 to 1959. Since 1956 he has appeared in the major collective shows of Pop Art - the art of salvaging real objects from everyday life, involving ordinary urban settings, everyday objects, rubbish, scrap, cartoons and their heroes. Since ...

Article

Arman  

Alfred Pacquement

[Fernandez, Armand]

(b Nice, Nov 17, 1928; d New York, Oct 22, 2005).

American sculptor and collector of French birth. Arman lived in Nice until 1949, studying there at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs from 1946 and in 1947 striking up a friendship with the artist Yves Klein, with whom he was later closely associated in the Nouveau Réalisme movement. In 1949 he moved to Paris, where he studied at the Ecole du Louvre and where in an exhibition in 1954 he discovered the work of Kurt Schwitters, which led him to reject the lyrical abstraction of the period. In 1955 Arman began producing Stamps, using ink-pads in a determined critique of Art informel and Abstract Expressionism to suggest a depersonalized and mechanical version of all-over paintings. In his next series, the Gait of Objects, which he initiated in 1958, he took further his rejection of the subjectivity of the personal touch by throwing inked objects against the canvas.

Arman’s willingness to embrace chance was indicated by his decision in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 24 September 1930, in Benicia (California); died 2 November 1992, in Benicia.

Ceramicist, sculptor, painter, printmaker, draughtsman. Figures.

Pop Art, Funk Art.

Robert Arneson studied at the College of Marin Kentfield, California (1949-1951), California College of Arts and Crafts (...

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Copenhagen.

Painter.

Pop Art, Minimal Art.

Self-taught, Per Arnoldi was influenced by the imagery of Pop Art. Arnoldi presents objects from the circus such as sticks, hats and balls with a mixture of humour, irony and a calculated naivety. He seems to have veered towards Minimalist austerity in very large formats involving vast monochrome areas separated by verticals in bright colours. He first exhibited in Munich (...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Washington, DC, Dec 26, 1924; d in Albany, NY, Feb 9, 2013).

American sculptor and painter . He studied art in 1949–50 under Amédée Ozenfant in New York. During the 1950s he designed and made furniture in New York, but after a fire that destroyed most of the contents of his shop in 1958 he turned again to art, initially painting abstract pictures derived from memories of the New Mexican landscape.

Artschwager continued to produce furniture and, after a commission to make altars for ships in 1960, had the idea of producing sculptures that mimicked actual objects while simultaneously betraying their identity as artistic illusions. At first these included objets trouvés made of wood, overpainted with acrylic in an exaggerated wood-grain pattern (e.g. Table and Chair, 1962–3; New York, Paula Cooper priv. col., see 1988–9 exh. cat., p. 49), but he soon developed more abstract or geometrical versions of such objects formed from a veneer of formica on wood (e.g. Table and Chair...

Article

Canadian First Nations (We Wai Kai/Cape Mudge Band), 21st century, male.

Born 1975, in Richmond (British Columbia).

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer.

The aesthetic of Sonny Assu (Liǥwilda’x̱w/Laich-kwil-tach) is a confluence of Northwest Coast formline motifs and popular Western culture. He is well versed in the traditional Kwakwaka’wakw arts of drum, blanket and basket making and uses these as the starting place of many of his artworks. Drawing on a pop sensibility, mass-media culture is used as a conduit to explore and expose these Kwakwaka’wakw traditions as well as the artist’s own mixed heritage. By bringing these seemingly desperate elements together, Assu’s works challenge popular notions of authenticity regarding Indigenous people and their art. Moreover, while the works may appear whimsical at first glance, they offer a sharp critique of Western society’s culture of consumption as it relates to colonisation, both historical and ongoing, in North America....

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1959.

Born 20 February 1931, in Budapest; died 22 March 1987, in Paris.

Painter, engraver.

Pop Art, Nova Figurace (New Figuration).

Atila first studied architecture in Paris, then in Stuttgart, before working with the painter Willy Baumeister. He moved definitively to Paris in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, female.

Born 1936, in Namur; died 1972.

Painter.

Axell was a pupil of René Magritte who worked with new materials, such as opalescent plastic, which she cut into shapes of the female form in a pop art style. Their luxurious quality led Pierre Restany to call them ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born c. 1935.

Painter, sculptor.

Groups: Spur, Geflecht.

Bachmayer was active with the Spur group, which became the Geflecht Group c. 1966. Both groups were influenced by CoBrA and Pop Art.

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Bordeaux.

Painter.

Balanci's work is influenced by abstract and Pop art, and is characterised by thick textures of cement and an amalgam of paper on to which he draws vague outlines. He has exhibited in Paris at the Salon de Mai and the Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui since ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in Luton.

Sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker.

Pop Art.

Clive Barker was associated with the Pop Art Movement in the early 1960s. His works from the years 1966 to 1969 included the use of facsimiles of everyday objects which he reproduced in brass, copper and bronze, either individually or in combinations, as, for example, ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Luton, Bedfordshire, Aug 29, 1940).

English sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at Luton College of Technology and Art from 1957 but abandoned the course in 1959, working instead on the assembly-line of the Vauxhall car factory in Luton for 18 months. The experience of helping to build beautiful, machine-made objects on the shop floor proved decisive on his choice of materials for his first sculptures in 1962: leather and chrome-plated metal. The idea of relying on specialist fabricators to achieve the best result made it easy for him to accept Marcel Duchamp’s notion of the ready-made, as applied to ordinary manufactured items designated as sculpture but not made by the artist’s own hands. Rather than simply taking things as he found them, however, Barker either commissioned fabricators to make them to his specifications as with his leather-clad Zip Boxes of 1962, which aligned him with Pop art or had the original objects recast or resurfaced so that the sculptures became non-functional surrogates for them. The techniques and materials he employed, the almost heroic elevation of the commonplace, the humorous touches and the acceptance of the banal and the kitsch all contribute to the provocative originality of Barker’s work of the 1960s and to its importance in anticipating and probably influencing the sculptures with which Jeff Koons made his name in the mid-1980s....

Article

Portuguese, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Coimbra.

Painter.

Eduardo Batarda was influenced by the imagery of Pop Art and turned towards a more complex, if often self-reverential, type of painting, in which he depicted the contemporary world. He showed his work in solo exhibitions. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1934, in Frankfurt am Main.

Painter, installation artist.

Bauermeister lives and works in Cologne. In 1961, her work was featured in a group exhibition alongside American Pop artists Jaspar Johns and Robert Rauschenberg at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam; all three artists were unknown at that time. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Chikasha (Oklahoma).

Engraver.

Denis Beall exhibited at the Paris Biennale of 1963. Although he drew inspiration from Nouvelle Figuration and Pop Art, his choice of subject matter nevertheless shows him to be close to a certain kind of Surrealism. He is represented in museums in London (Victoria and Albert Museum), Oakland and San Francisco....

Article

Canadian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1957, in Toronto (Ontario).

Sculptor.

Neo-Conceptual Art, Appropriation Art.

Alan Belcher lives and works in Toronto and New York. In the Pop Art tradition, Belcher uses advertising images, meaningfully exploiting their powers of enticement. His work consists of glossy colour photographs that are usually pinned, screwed, nailed or wrapped around various objects made of Plexiglas, metal or wood. By using the seductive colours of publicity photographs, and their perfect finish, Belcher's sculpture works on two levels. On one, he denounces marketing's manipulative wiles; on the other, he creates works of art that are almost Minimalist in their simplicity of form. Since ...