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Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 19 November 1889, in Verdun; died 25 June 1972.

Painter, draughtswoman, humorist artist, watercolourist, illustrator, designer. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes. Church decoration, furniture, frescoes, designs for tapestry, posters, costumes.

The third child of Edouard Branly, a doctor, Elisabeth Branly trained with Claire Chevalet, as well as with Jacques Cancaret at the Académie Julian until ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 4 January 1887, in London; died 1941.

Painter, illustrator, metal worker, textile designer. Landscapes.

Gregory Brown designed posters for railway companies, the Empire Marketing Board and for the Underground Group from 1914 to 1940. He won a gold medal for textile design at the ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 15 October 1893, in Angers.

Engraver, illustrator, painter, decorative designer. Designs for carpets, designs (wallpapers/fabrics).

Maurice Camus studied with Claudio Castellucho at the latter's Académie de Montparnasse and also under Lucien Simon. During a visit to Palermo in 1919, he painted decorative compositions for the Casa Florio. He exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in Paris and was made a member in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 February 1925, in Alexandria, Egypt.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, graphic designer. Posters, wall decorations, designs for tapestries, designs for carpets.

From 1942, Jean Cortot studied under Othon Friesz at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, and together with Busse, Calmettes, Patrix and others, was a co-founder of the ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active then naturalised in 1918 in Austria.

Born 27 July 1881, in Wunsiedel (Upper Franconia); died 1965, in Vienna.

Painter, engraver (wood), draughtsman, illustrator, lithographer, watercolourist, illustrator. Figures, animals. Designs for carpets, designs (wallpapers).

Jugendstil.

Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich in 1896, and then, after his family moved to Austria, at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1899, under the supervision of Christian Griepenkerl and August Eisenmenger. In Vienna, he worked for various design companies, producing designs for wallpaper and similar work, and starting his collaboration with the Wiener Werkstätte (Vienna Studio) in 1903. Around 1906, he completed his training at the Vienna Akademie der Bildenden Künste in graphic art, where he learned engraving with William Unger. He taught at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Frankfurt from 1911. He was a member of the Deutscher Werkbund. He formed a friendship with Egon Schiele and Kokoschka. He obtained Austrian nationality in 1918 and, between 1921 and 1930, travelled regularly to Italy, visiting Rome, Naples and Sicily. The Nazis banned him from practising his art and subjected him to persecution. He withdrew to Split in 1938. On returning to Austria in 1952, he was rehabilitated and received the title of professor, and his art was acclaimed....

Article

Bulgarian, 20th century, male.

Born 1 January 1932, in Assenovgrad.

Painter, sculptor, mosaicist, illustrator. Decorative panels, frescoes, stage sets, patterns (fabrics).

Ivan Kirkov studied at the national academy of fine arts in Sofia where he attended painting classes with Ilia Petrov and Kirk Tsonev, completing his training there in ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1875, in Leipzig; died 1948, in Althagen near Wustrow.

Illustrator, draughtswoman, decorative designer. Designs for fabrics, furniture and jewels.

Jugendstil.

Gertrud Kleinhempel studied drawing in Dresden, then in Munich, and made her debut in 1899 as an illustrator in Dresden. From ...

Article

[Christiaan]

(b Amsterdam, May 26, 1878; d Dachau, April 2, 1945).

Dutch painter, designer and applied artist. He trained in design and decorative painting at the Quellinus school and the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (National School of the Applied Arts) in Amsterdam from 1892 to 1899. He was assigned to assist with the decoration of the Dutch pavilion at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. A number of his designs for the pavilion were executed in batik, a Javanese technique that had been recently introduced in the Netherlands. In subsequent years Lebeau developed a very personal approach to batiking and within a short time became the leading Dutch artist in this field. His batiked screens in particular were widely acclaimed (examples in Assen, Prov. Mus. Drenthe) and are considered masterpieces of Dutch Jugendstil.

Lebeau is one of the most important representatives of the severe, geometrical trend in Dutch applied arts of the early 20th century. From 1903 he designed damask tablecloths and household linen for the ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 October 1865, in Bromberg (now Bydgoszcz, Poland); died 24 July 1908, in Schlachtensee (Berlin).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator, decorative designer, writer. Landscapes, landscapes with figures, waterscapes. Posters, designs for carpets, designs for tapestries, designs (wallpapers/book-binding)...

Article

Fani-Maria Tsigakou

[Yiannis, Giannis]

(b Arta, April 23, 1916; d Athens, Dec 20, 2009).

Greek painter, printmaker, illustrator, stage designer and decorative artist. From 1931 to 1936 he studied painting and printmaking at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Athens under Konstantinos Parthenis and Yannis Kefallinos (1893–1957). As soon as he graduated he participated in the exhibition of Greek printmakers that was organized in Czechoslovakia in 1936. The same year, on a scholarship from the Academy of Athens, he went to Rome and then to Paris to study at the Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole des Arts et Métiers. He returned to Athens in 1940, when he participated in the last pre-war panhellenic exhibition, in which he was awarded the first prize. During the period of the German occupation (1941–4) he started painting portraits to earn his living. In these his restricted palette and the opposition of light and shadow with as little half-tone as possible reveal his concern with the flattening of form and space. His post-war canvases are painted with a directness of execution and solidly modelled forms. His concern with the structure of form led him gradually to geometrical compositions. In ...

Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Montreal; died 1991.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, decorative designer. Stage sets, frescoes, posters, fabric designs, advertising art.

Groupe des Automatistes.

Jean-Paul Mousseau was initially a pupil of Brother Jérôme at the Collège Notre Dame in Montreal, then studied in the studio of Borduas ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 29 July 1897, in Paris; died 10 July 1981, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Mythological subjects, genre scenes, figures, local figures, portraits, landscapes, waterscapes, still-lifes, flowers. Wall decorations, stage costumes and sets, designs for fabrics, designs for tapestries, furniture...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 October 1853, in Old Alresford; died 21 December 1940, in South Gorley.

Engraver (etching), illustrator, textile designer, archaeologist. Scenes with figures.

George Heywood Maunoir Sumner trained as a lawyer but chose to pursue a career in art. He lived and worked in London, where he played an important role in the revival of wood engraving. He was a member of the Fitzroy Picture Society, through whom he published reproductions of his prints. He exhibited in London from ...