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Article

(b Brussels, Aug 20, 1848; d Ixelles, Brussels, Dec 13, 1914).

Belgian architect, designer, painter and writer . He came from a family of artists: one brother, Charles Baes, was a glass painter and two others, Henri Baes and Pierre Baes, were decorative painters. Jean Baes studied decorative design at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, and, from 1867 to 1871, in the firm of Charle-Albert. He subsequently trained in architecture in the studios of Emile Janlet, Wynand Janssens and Alphonse Balat. Baes devoted most of his professional career—which was cut short in 1895 by a debilitating illness—to architecture but he also worked as an interior designer, a graphic designer, an architectural draughtsman and, especially, as a watercolourist of architectural subjects. In 1872 he was a founder-member of Belgium’s Société Centrale d’Architecture and after 1874 he collaborated on its journal, L’Emulation. In 1886 he became Assistant Director of the newly established Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Brussels, where his pupils included Paul Hankar and ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 12 April 1871, in Berlin; died 15 April 1925, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

Draughtsman, architect, decorative artist, designer, illustrator, author. Furniture, jewellery, lamps, art objects.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

In Munich, August Endell studied philosophy, art history, aesthetics and psychology, notably a course run by Theodor Lipp on the psychological effect of the perception of lines and forms. There, in ...

Article

G. Jansen

(dorus Henricus Antonius Adolf)

(b Leeuwarden, Feb 23, 1871; d Lugano, Dec 1, 1920).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, designer and writer. He received his first artistic training at the Rijksnormaalschool voor Tekenonderwijs in Amsterdam (1889–91) and in the studio of the architect P. J. H. Cuypers in 1891. Under the influence of the work of his uncle Antoon Derkinderen he decided to exchange his architectural training for painting at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1891–2). During this time he became friendly with Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof and C. A. Lion Cachet, with whom he shared a great interest in Symbolism.

In 1895 Molkenboer exhibited his first portraits, which form the most important body of his work and which assured him of a steady stream of commissions. Their realism is strongly inspired by that of Jan van Scorel and the Flemish Old Masters; the portrait of W. B. G. Molkenboer (1896; Netherlands, priv. col., see Viola) is one of the many examples of this. His portraits of the ...

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 26 August 1833, in Copenhagen; died 1910.

Painter, draughtsman, architect, writer. Architectural views.

Hillerød (Frederiksbørg Slot): four watercolours

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 May 1871, in Karlsruhe.

Watercolourist, architect, writer.

Leopold Theodor Karl Oelenheinz was related to Friedrich Oelenheinz and was also an architect and writer.

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 4 June 1837, in Paris; died 17 May 1920, in Paris.

Watercolourist, architect, writer.

Jean Louis Pascal studied under Gilbert and Questel. He was the architect of the tomb of Regnault at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and of ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1858, in San Marino; died 19 May 1911, in Rome.

Painter, sculptor, architect, art critic. Murals.

Emilio Retrosi produced an enormous fresco for the Palazzo della Reggenza in San Marino, the decoration adorning the façade of the national theatre, and various paintings on display in Rome at the Palazzo Doria Pamphili, the Palazzo del Quirinale and the Vatican....

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 February 1856, in Frankfurt; died 23 July 1927, in Potsdam.

Painter, engraver, writer. Genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views.

Fritz Rumnf was the father of Friedrich Carl Georg Rumpf. An etcher, he studied at the Städel Institute in Frankfurt and the academy in Kassel....

Article

Marian Burleigh-Motley

(Sergeyevich)

(b Nakhchyvan’-on-Don [now Rostov-on-Don], Feb 28, 1880; d Yerevan, May 5, 1972).

Armenian painter and museum director. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1897 to 1903 and then worked in the studios of Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin. He was a member of the Moscow Symbolist group around Pavel Kuznetsov who participated in the Crimson Rose (Alaya Roza) exhibition in Saratov, 1904, and the Blue Rose group’s exhibition in Moscow in 1907. Like the other members of the group, Saryan painted fantastic themes, sometimes based on folk tales, although in brighter colours and with stronger rhythmic patterns than were typical of the other Symbolists. Man with Gazelles (1906–7; untraced, see Gray, rev. 2/1986, pl. 45), exhibited at the Blue Rose exhibition and Panthers, also known as Deserted Village (1907; Yerevan, Pict. Gal. Armenia), with its bright blue sky, yellow tree and dark blue panthers, indicate a growing interest in exotic places and an increasingly stylized treatment of figures and animals....

Article

Sixten Ringbom

(b Kraljevec, Croatia, Austria–Hungary [now Croatia], Feb 27, 1861; d Dornach, March 30, 1925).

Austrian mystic and philosopher, active also as architect, designer and painter. He studied science and philosophy at Vienna University. From 1883 to 1897 he prepared an edition of the scientific writings of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose colour theory, aesthetics, morphological speculation and generally idealistic Weltanschauung had a profound and lasting influence on Steiner. In 1902 he became the Secretary-General of the German branch of the Theosophical Society (see Theosophy). He was a prolific writer and lecturer, and during his theosophical period (1902–12) he worked towards a synthesis of German Romanticism and Anglo-Indian theosophy, drawing on the writings of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Edouard Schuré, Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater, as well as Goethe. Through theosophical meditation Steiner claimed to have gained access to the inner worlds and hidden forces postulated by some Romantics. He published manuals for ‘inner knowledge’ such as Theosophie (1904) and ...

Article

Jane Block and Paul Kruty

(b Antwerp, April 3, 1863; d Zurich, Oct 25, 1957).

Belgian designer, architect, painter, and writer. He was one of the leading figures in the creation of Art Nouveau in the 1890s.

From 1880 to 1883 Van de Velde studied at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp, exhibiting for the first time in 1882. In 1883 he was a founder-member of the art group Als Ik Kan, which fostered the position of the artist outside of the Salon. His earliest paintings, such as the Guitar-player (1883; Brussels, priv. col., see Canning, p. 100), are in a Realist vein with sombre tones. In October 1884 Van de Velde travelled to Paris. Although he entered the studio of the academic painter Carolus-Duran, where he remained until the spring of 1885, he was strongly attracted to the works of Jean-François Millet (ii). His works after his stay in Paris, such as Still-life with Fruit Dish (1886; Otterlo, Kröller-Müller), display the characteristic broken brushstroke of the Impressionists, although this style is often combined with subjects drawn from Millet, seen in the ...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 7 September 1863, in Copenhagen; died 1958, in Cannes, France.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, potter, architect, pastellist, art writer. Figures, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Jens Ferdinand Willumsen studied under Kroyer at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. He visited France (Paris, 1889-1889) and Spain, where he was influenced by El Greco. He returned to Paris and lived there from 1890 to 1894. A visit to Pont Aven and Le Pouldu in 1890 saw him forge a friendship with Gauguin and Sérusier and, on his return to his native Copenhagen, he and a number of other Danish painters and sculptors launched the ...

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 May 1851, in Poszawsze; died 5 September 1915, in Lovran (Istria), Croatia.

Painter, art theorist, architect. Landscapes.

Stanislaw Witkiewicz was deported to Siberia, together with his family, following the 1863 uprising, where he learned drawing with the lithographer, Fleck. After the ...

Article

Marian Burleigh-Motley

( Fyodorovich )

(b Moscow, Oct 24, 1875; d Moscow, April 11, 1958).

Russian painter and writer . Yuon attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1894 to 1898, studying under Konstantin Korovin and others. From 1899 to 1900 he was in the workshop of Valentin Serov. In 1899 he also travelled extensively abroad. In 1900, together with Ivan Dudin (1867–1924), he opened an art school in Moscow, where many of the future avant-garde studied, including Lyubov’ Popova, Varvara Stepanova and Nadezhda Udal’tsova. Yuon painted the Russian landscape and views of old Russian churches and monasteries as had Apollinary Vasnetsov before him. Trinity Monastery: Winter (1910; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), with its light-filled atmosphere, is typical of his work. The landscape March Sun (1915; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) betrays the influence of the Impressionist style of his teacher Korovin in its portrayal of sunlight casting blue shadows on the snow, an effect that is repeated in End of Winter: Midday...