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German, 16th century, male.


Achert's name is found on a painting dating from the Renaissance period, which decorates one of the altars in the church of Rottweil.


Werner Broda

[Hans von Ulm]

(fl Ulm, 1413–61).

German painter. He belonged to an artist family of which several generations were documented in 15th-century Ulm. According to municipal tax lists, ‘Ackerlin, painter’ was a master by 1413. He received payments from the masons’ lodge of Ulm Cathedral from 1415. In 1441 the cathedral lodge in Berne paid ‘Master Hans of Ulm’ for the production and delivery of stained-glass windows: this Hans is identified with Acker (see also Gothic, §VIII, 5). The Berne Passion window (1441; Berne Cathedral, chancel), his only surviving documented work, demonstrates the capabilities of mid-15th-century German glass painting in dealing with box-shaped hall-church interiors. Its Apostle figures still belong to the tradition of the ‘Soft style’, inspired by Bohemian art, while the style of their robes is reminiscent of those in the chancel windows of Ulm Cathedral. The appearance of a landscape background reveals the influence of the glass paintings (c....


Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....


Scot McKendrick

(fl Arras, 1419–64).

Burgundian painter and tapestry designer. He was a wealthy member of the Arras bourgeoisie and seems to have been a very successful artist. His first recorded work was the painting of mainly heraldic devices in memory of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, at the abbey of St Vaast in 1419. The work was undertaken in such a short time and for a sufficiently large payment that he has been considered the head of an important workshop. In 1426 he was again paid for heraldic painting at Arras, and in 1454 he shared with Jacques Daret the supervision of the painting by Robert de Moncheaux (fl 1454–68) of the tomb of the abbot of St Vaast, Jean du Clercq (untraced).

Bauduin is best known for his execution of the designs for a set of tapestries of the History of Gideon (destr. 1794), considered the most outstanding tapestries owned by ...


(fl 1427–57).

Painter, probably of Swiss origin. He worked for the House of Savoy. In July 1427, after a three-month trip through Italy accompanying a Savoyard diplomatic mission, ‘Johannes Batheur de Friburgo’ (probably Swiss Fribourg) settled in Thonon, a principal seat of the House of Savoy. Ducal treasury rolls (Turin, Archv Stato) indicate that as part of his court duties Bapteur painted a statue of St Andrew (carved by ‘Monetus’) and an Apocalypse manuscript, made banners for parades, mummeries, banquets, and funerals, decorated carriages and litters, and designed tapestries, costumes, and masks. In the summer of 1432, assisted by ‘Dominico de Venise’ (?Domenico Veneziano), ‘Perenet lenlumineur’ (Peronet Lamy) and artists from Lausanne, Geneva, and Metz, Bapteur arranged lavish heraldic decoration in the new chapel and hall of the Château de Thonon for Amadeus VIII (reg 1391–1434), the 1st Duke of Savoy. Two years later at Seyssel, Bapteur, with his wife and five other painters, decorated the ships destined to take Amadeus’s daughter Margaret down the River Rhône to meet her prospective husband, Louis III of Anjou. The same year he painted and gilded a picture above a door at Ripaille, Amadeus’s hermitage on the south shore of Lake Geneva. In ...


(b ?Antwerp, c. 1475; d Antwerp, before Nov 10, 1528).

South Netherlandish painter and draughtsman. He is first mentioned in 1490 in the register of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, apprenticed to the painter Gillis van Everen (fl 1477–1513). In 1504 de Beer became a master. He subsequently served as alderman of the guild in 1509 and dean in 1515, although he found himself temperamentally unsuited to the position of dean, as is known from a lawsuit he filed in 1519 regarding guild administration. This document also reveals that de Beer participated in the preparations for Charles V’s ‘Joyous Entry’ into Antwerp in 1515 and for the Antwerp Society of Rhetoricians’ entry that year in the Malines landjuweel (regional competition of the rhetoricians). In 1510 and 1513 de Beer enrolled apprentices; his son Aert de Beer (c. 1509–before 6 Aug 1540) became an Antwerp master in 1529. The artist is undocumented between 1519 and 1528...


M. Smeyers

(fl 1415; d before Jan 28, 1445).

South Netherlandish painter. He was one of the artists who came from the South Netherlands to work for the French royal family. On 23 May 1415 he succeeded Jean Malouel as court painter and Valet de Chambre to John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy (see Burgundy, House of family, §2), in Dijon, and he may already have been connected with Malouel’s workshop. On 5 November 1415 Bellechose was paid for painting four small wooden pillars with angels, which were placed around the high altar of Notre-Dame, Dijon. On 19 May 1416 the duke authorized the purchase of materials for Bellechose to complete two panels, one of the Martyrdom of St Denis and another showing the Death of the Virgin, for the Charterhouse of Champmol. Bellechose also carried out decorative work, including painting banners for the Duke’s castle of Talant near Dijon in 1416 and coats of arms for the funeral of John the Fearless in ...


Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Venice,c. 1443–1490.

Painter, manuscript illuminator.

Leonardo Bellini was the nephew of Jacopo Bellini and cousin of his sons Giovanni and Gentile, all three of whom were painters. A contract dated 1443 documents Leonardo as an apprentice to Jacopo, with whom he lived. Although a few panel paintings have been attributed to him, Leonardo was primarily active as an illuminator. He seems to have specialised in adding miniatures to ...


Jacqueline Mongellaz


(b Castiglione di Valdorcia, nr Siena, ?1380–85; d Perugia, Sept 19, 1417).

Italian painter. He may have been a pupil of Paolo di Giovanni Fei and was influenced by Taddeo di Bartolo in his early works. However, the strongest influence on his art was Simone Martini. He is first recorded on 20 November 1409, when he was paid by the Opera del Duomo, Siena. He had overall responsibility for the fresco decoration of the three chapels in the sacristy of Siena Cathedral (March 1411–March 1412), one the most prestigious commissions in Siena at that date. There he worked with Gualtieri di Giovanni, Niccolò di Naldo, and Giovanni di Bindino (b Siena, ?1380–85; d Siena, 9 Nov 1417), a group of painters sometimes called the Masters of the Sacristy of Siena Cathedral. His work has a lively narrative style and uses forceful characterization in such scenes as the Apparition of St Michael on Castel Sant’Angelo in the chapel of the Reliquary. He also painted the reliquary cupboard (...


(b Perugia, c. 1420; d Perugia, July 8, 1496).

Italian painter. He was almost certainly trained in Perugia between 1430 and 1440, where a Late Gothic style was still dominant. Subsequently he was influenced by Fra Angelico, whose polyptych (Perugia, G.N. Umbria) for S Domenico, Perugia, was commissioned in 1437, and more importantly by Domenico Veneziano, who worked in that city c. 1438. The influence of Domenico Veneziano and of Gentile da Fabriano can be seen in Bonfigli’s earliest surviving work, a polyptych (now dismembered), which had a central panel of the Virgin and Child (El Paso, TX, Mus. A.), shown against a densely wooded background, and St Sebastian and a Bishop Saint (Monserrat, Mus.) on one wing. Another wing (untraced) shows St Bernardino of Siena and St Anthony Abbot. Bonfigli is first documented on 7 March 1445, when he undertook to paint a Virgin and Child with Two Angels (untraced) for a chapel near S Pietro, Perugia. A votive fresco of ...


Italian, 16th century, male.

Born between 1475 and 1477, in Cremona; died 1536, in Cremona.


Galeazzo Campi was a pupil of Baccacio Boccaccino, to whom he owes much, although he was also part of the Renaissance movement. Galeazzo was the first of the members of this family of artists of Cremona. In addition to his works in museums there is a ...


Catherine Reynolds

(b c. 1375–9; d Tournai, 1444).

South Netherlandish painter. He is first mentioned in 1405–6 as a painter in Tournai. As he purchased citizenship there in 1410, he may have been born elsewhere. There is evidence of some connection with Valenciennes, where the name Campin is said to have been common, but nothing certain is known of his artistic training and background.

Campin’s career can be traced through various Tournai records. He was frequently employed by the municipality from 1408 to 1441 for banners and other decorative ephemera. He also worked on more considerable paintings, in particular in 1428 on a mural in the Halle des Jurez depicting SS Piat and Eleuthère and the King, Queen and Dauphin of France. Alterations to the Halle led to the mural’s destruction in 1436, but it was sufficiently esteemed to be copied by another artist before demolition. Campin’s polychromy of statues brought him into direct contact with the flourishing Tournai sculptural tradition: he worked not only for the town, as in ...


Dominique Thiébaut

(fl 1485; d Avignon, before Jan 17, 1495).

French painter. He came from the diocese of Langres and may have been born in Dijon; he was perhaps a member of the family of painters named Changenet who were active there from the mid-15th century. Jean Changenet is documented in Avignon from 1485, and it is clear from the variety and importance of his commissions and the number of his apprentices that he was the most prominent painter there at the end of the 15th century. In 1503 his daughter Michelle married the painter Josse Lieferinxe.

Changenet seems to have specialized in altarpieces, although he also produced decorations. He received commissions for altarpieces from the community of Mazan and for Notre-Dame in Dijon (1485); for St Geniès in Avignon (1486); for the church of Barbentane, for St Agricol, Avignon, and for the Dominican church in Arles (1487); from Antoine and Jacques Bourguignon of Sault (...


Libby Karlinger Escobedo

Illustrated manuscript (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, MS. 597/1424) of the Inferno by Dante Alighieri, probably made in Pisa c. 1345. Dante’s Inferno is the first part of his Divine Comedy, written sometime between 1308 and 1321, in which Dante himself, guided by the Roman poet Virgil, travels through the nine circles of Hell, encountering a variety of notable historical figures guilty of the various sins associated with each successive level. The many surviving manuscripts attest to the popularity of the text; more than 600 copies survive from the 14th century alone, including the Chantilly manuscript.

The Chantilly manuscript contains the Inferno as well as a Latin commentary on the text by Guido da Pisa. Most of the manuscript’s 55 miniatures accompany the commentary, though their iconography is drawn from the Inferno itself. The Chantilly manuscript is among the earliest illustrated copies of the Inferno and the only known illustrated copy of Guido da Pisa’s commentary. The manuscript includes the arms of the ...


Dominique Thiébaut

(b ?Avignon; fl 1432; d after Jan 20, 1472).

French painter. He is documented in Aix-en-Provence from 1432 to 1472, although he may previously have worked in Avignon. He painted banners, including two for King René I of Naples, Duke of Anjou (1448), and received a number of commissions for altarpieces and other works. These included altarpieces for the Dominican church in Carpentras (1435) and for Notre-Dame-des-Accoules in Marseille (1441), a panel (1447) dedicated to St Anne, with a depiction of the Virgin and Child with St Anne in the centre, six scenes of the Life of St Honorat for the bakers’ guild in Aix (1449), a painting of St Gregory and 18 Other Saints for Catherine Tele of Aix (1453) and a predella for Melchior Gautelmi of Trets (1454); in 1458 he painted and gilded a cross with images of Christ and the Virgin for the prior of Callas. However, none of these can be identified with a surviving work. Chapus was once thought to be the ...


Joel M. Upton

(b Baerle-Duc [now Baarle-Hertog], c. 1410; d Bruges, 1475–6).

South Netherlandish painter.

His known artistic career began in Bruges on 6 July 1444 when, as the Poorterboek (‘citizens’ register’) for that day reveals, ‘he purchased his citizenship … in order to be a painter’. Town records show that he and his wife became members of the Confraternity of the Dry Tree c. 1462; that in 1463 he and another painter, Pieter Nachtegale, were paid for the construction of a Tree of Jesse (destr.) and for the cost of assistants employed on the day of the religious procession in which it was used; and that on 19 March 1472 he served as a representative of the painters’ guild in a dispute with another painter, Jehan de Hervy the elder (fl 1472–1507). These and a few other scattered references comprise the existing documentation for Christus’s life and work.

The core of Christus’s oeuvre is composed of signed and dated paintings done between ...


Gabriele Bartz

[Jacobo; Jacobus]

(fl 1398–1404).

South Netherlandish painter. He came from Bruges and is known only through written sources, the earliest of which places him in Paris in 1398, when he dictated instructions on the production of colours to Johannes Alcherius. Alcherius reproduced Coene’s instructions, with information from other French and Italian painters, in a treatise of 1411. In 1399, on Alcherius’s recommendation, Coene was one of the three consultants summoned to Milan to advise on the construction of the cathedral (see Mason, §IV, 3, (iii)). In a surviving contract, Coene was required to produce a drawing of the cathedral, from the base to the tip. In 1407 it was recorded that Jacques Raponde, acting for the Burgundian dukes Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, had paid on Philip’s behalf the sum of 20 francs to Coene in 1404 for a Bible in Latin and French. Coene worked on this commission with ...


Anne Hagopian van Buren

(b ?Burgundy, c. 1420; d Bruges, before 1502).

Franco-Flemish painter and designer. He is first documented painting stained glass in Philip the Good’s Burgundian castle of Argilly in 1448 and 1452. He was appointed a painter to the Duke in January 1454, just before he worked with Colard le Voleur, Master of the Entertainments at Hesdin, on fountains and other machines for the Banquet of the Pheasant in Lille. During the next years, Coustain was responsible for painting the banners and heralds’ tabards for several court festivities and funerals. He coloured statues of St Philip and St Elizabeth on the ducal palace in Brussels in 1462 and painted a Crucifixion and a Virgin and Child on the panels placed at the head and foot of the Duke’s catafalque in 1467.

Coustain was most active under Charles the Bold. In 1468 he and the Duke’s other painter, Jean Hennecart, were in Bruges, supervising 166 painters and sculptors in the production of the decorations for the meeting of the Order of the Golden Fleece as well as decorations, mechanical devices, props and sets for ...


(fl 1463–8).

French illuminator and painter. He is documented in the service of Charles, Duc de Berry, and, on one occasion, working for his older brother, King Louis XI. In all probability Jean de Laval is the true identity of the artist referred to as the Master of Charles of France (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family, §I). Three painters have been connected with Charles of France: Jean de Laval, Henri de Vulcop and Jean Guillemer. Of these, Jean de Laval is the only one mentioned in ducal accounts as ‘peintre de mondit seigneur’. He was paid in 1463–4 the substantial sum of 66 livres tournois, 100 sous in 1467 and, in 1468, 8 livres, 8 sous and 12 livres for unspecified works. In May and September 1464 Laval is also mentioned in a royal account as ‘peintre de Mgr le duc de Berry’ when he painted a scarlet war pennant for the captain of Louis XI’s guard. ...


Patrick M. de Winter

(fl 1426–39).

French painter. He is first documented in 1426, when he was producing wall paintings in churches in Besançon (destr.). During the 1430s he was the most important painter in Dijon, and he was probably responsible for the panel of the Presentation with Kneeling Donors (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.), formerly in the charterhouse of Champmol. This combines figure types derived from the Master of Flémalle with Eyckian motifs: the depiction of the scene in a church interior resembles Jan van Eyck’s Virgin and Child in a Church (Berlin, Gemäldegal.). Maisoncelles may have executed the wall paintings depicting a Circumcision and a Baptism that were recorded in Notre-Dame, Dijon, by Louis Joseph Ypermann (1892; Paris, Mus. Mnmts Fr., 10.187). On 17 March 1436 Maisoncelles received payment from the Burgundian treasury for a waist-length portrait of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy (untraced), specified as being 3 ft by 2½, placed beside those of former dukes in the sanctuary of Champmol. The 16th-century serial bust-length portraits of Philip, epitomized by a panel in Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, A. Mus.), might be versions of Maisoncelles’s portrait, though in these the Duke is crowned, which differs from the commission’s specifications (he was shown wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece), and his wrinkled face appears older than that of a man who was 40 in ...