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Article

Bichtir  

Mongolian School, 17th century, male.

Miniaturist.

This artist, who lived during the reign of the emperor Jahangir, developed the art of the miniature, rejecting scenes containing many figures in favour of portraits or small groups, often arranged in genre scenes which were animated and full of gaiety, and preferring observation of social customs to the depiction of ornamental beauty....

Article

(fl 1684; d ?Persia, May 12, 1699).

French sculptor. Cavalier is thought to have been a Huguenot trained in his native France. His career is obscure until 1684, by which time he was a carver of portraits in ivory of exceptional talent and probably already settled in England. In that year he made the relief of Charles II on Horseback, signed on the verso ‘i. cavalier. f. 1684’ (h. 150 mm; Leeds, C.A.G.). This is a magnificent and unusually ambitious work incorporating on the verso a delicately chiselled tree and flower as a test of the suitability of the material. The relief itself shows the King dressed in Classical armour and cloak, holding a baton in his outstretched hand, riding a noble horse caparisoned with an elaborately embroidered saddle-cloth in a landscape of rolling, grassy hills strewn with flowers. The curving grain of the ivory is used convincingly to suggest the glossy sweat of the beast’s hind quarters. The rather dry, linear treatment of this relief, which it shares with Cavalier’s other carvings of the same period, gave way to softer, more fluid modelling and an even more exquisite rendering of detail in such works as the portrait of ...

Article

Indian, 16th – 17th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Farrouk El Kalmak worked at the court of Emperor Akbar the Great in India. The Akbarnama, a manuscript record of Akbar the Great’s reign Abu-al-fazl, a philosopher of the time (now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London) has illustrations by him....

Article

Bohemian School, 17th century, male.

Active in Prague.

Draughtsman.

Brother Electus produced drawings of holy sites in Palestine. They were engraved on copper by D. Wussin.

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Paris, 1926).

Turkish historian of Islamic architecture. He studied in the faculty of architecture at Istanbul Technical University under Emin Onat, receiving his degree in 1949 for a study of Turkish Baroque architecture. He spent 1954–5 in Italy investigating Renaissance architecture, and 1962–3 in the USA on a Fulbright Fellowship. The following year he was a fellow at Harvard University’s Center for Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC, where he studied Byzantine architecture in Anatolia, and for the next decade he was involved in the study and restoration of the Byzantine church known as Kalenderhane Cami in Istanbul. He taught architectural history and restoration at Istanbul Technical University from 1958 until his retirement in 1993 and was dean of the architecture faculty from 1974 to 1977. From 1978 to 1983 he served on the first Aga Khan Award for Architecture, and in 1980–81 he was Aga Khan Professor of Islamic Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His voluminous scholarship combines a thorough knowledge of European architectural history and theory with a close and intimate reading of Turkish and Islamic buildings and their structure....

Article

(b Jaroslav, Galicia, Aug 12, 1926; d Tel Aviv, June 21, 2003).

Israeli painter of Polish birth. He first began to draw in 1947 after seeing the Renaissance and Baroque works in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. He emigrated to Israel in 1948 and in 1953 and 1955 attended the summer art courses held at Kibbutz Na’an under Yossef Zaritsky and Avigdor Stematsky. Under the influence of the lyrical abstract style of these artists his work became increasingly abstract by the late 1950s, as in Painting (1959; see 1984 exh. cat., p. 16). In 1960 he had his first one-man show at the Chemerinsky Gallery in Tel Aviv, and the following year he travelled in Europe.

In 1963 Kupferman exhibited at the New Horizons show at the Museum of Art in Ein Harod, and the same year ‘basic forms’ appeared in his work. These were abstract, geometrical elements such as X and Y shapes and grids; the works of the 1960s, while including these forms, are very expressive and often created in an uncontrolled manner, as in ...

Article

Indian, 17th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Berlin (Bodemus.): one illustration

Article

Indian, 17th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Rampur (Nat. Lib.): miniatures

Article

Indian, 17th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 17th century.

Miniaturist.

Mahansad Talik worked at the court of the Emperor Jahangir.

Article

Mani  

Indian, 17th century, male.

Painter.

Mani probably lived around 1600. He belongs to the group of artists working under the Emperor Akbar the Great (1556-1605) and his son Jahangir.

Article

Manohar  

Indian, 17th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Manohar lived at the courts of the emperors Akbar the Great (1556-1605), Jahangir and Shah Jahan around from 1600. He may be confused with Manohar Singh, son of Rajah Lonkaran. His signature is found at the foot of some very beautiful manuscript illuminations from the period of Akbar the Great. He was also a remarkable animal painter....

Article

Indian, 17th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 17th century.

Miniaturist.

Manoshahr worked at the court of Jahangir.

Article

Indian, 17th century, male.

Painter.

Mir Kalan was an artist at the court of Jahangir.

Article

Indian, 17th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 17th century.

Painter.

Modi was a painter in the school of artists around Jahangir.

Article

Spanish, 17th century, male.

Painter.

The Filipino college in Alcalá de Henares has a number of works by Diego Pérez Mexia and his Portrait of a Dominican is in the Altenburg museum.

Article

Indian, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active from 1556 to 1605.

Illuminator.

Several pages in the Akbarnama, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, were illuminated by Qabul Ahmad.

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): illumi­nations

Article

Qasim  

Indian, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active from 1556 to 1605.

Illuminator.

Qasim painted 24 of the miniatures in the Shahnama now in the British Museum, London.

London (British Mus.)

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Born 1637, in Bruges; died after 1672, in Bruges.

Painter. Landscapes.

Nicolaes Ryckx was the pupil of Van der Kabel. He returned home in 1664, after a period in Palestine, and was a member of the guild at Bruges in ...

Article

John Pinto

(b Rome, Aug 6, 1697; d Rome, Feb 9, 1751).

Italian architect. A contemporary of Luigi Vanvitelli, Ferdinando Fuga and Giovanni Battista Piranesi, he participated in the architectural embellishment of Rome that transformed its appearance in the early and middle decades of the 18th century. His reputation is largely tied to a single work, however: the Trevi Fountain.

Salvi showed an early interest in philosophy and mathematics, as well as studying medicine and anatomy and writing poetry. In 1717 he was admitted to the Accademia degli Arcadi, the prestigious literary society founded in Rome by Christina, Queen of Sweden. The influence of the Arcadians encouraged Salvi to value Renaissance models and to explore irregular, picturesque compositions in his designs; he also esteemed 17th-century Roman architecture, from which he learnt how to use the Classical orders to achieve bold sculptural effects. His biographer Niccolò Gabburri recorded that Salvi spent nine years deciding which career to pursue. During this time he attended classes at the Accademia di S Luca given by the painter ...

Article

(b Augsburg, April 10, 1655; bur; Augsburg, June 25, 1734).

German goldsmith, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of Israel Thelott (1616–96), a goldsmith and member of a French family of artists documented in Augsburg from 1585. As early as 1670 Thelott executed a relief of the Trinity (London, BM), a copy of a work by Paulus van Vianen. His years in Italy as a journeyman are attested by his relief panel Majestas and Amor (1687; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), inscribed ‘Roma’. Also from that period are a panel entitled Triumph of Two Roman Generals (1684; London, V&A), resembling antique reliefs, and a panel depicting the Baptism of Christ (1685; London, V&A). Notable among his various vessels and containers are those with embossed work, often serving as a casing, such as the Deckel-Portal goblet (1689; Augsburg, Städt. Kstsamml.), its decoration including the stories of Oedipus and Jason and the feats of Hercules. He also worked on clocks (Moscow, Hist. Mus.; example dated ...