You are looking at  1-20 of 53 results  for:

  • Renaissance/Baroque Art x
  • 1300–1400 x
Clear All

Article

A. A.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Initials of a painter and engraver.

Cited by Bartsch and Defer; known for an engraving of Young Satyr and Old Satyr copied from an etching by Marcantonio Raimondi.

Article

German (?), 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Brulliot made a reference to this artist. His monogram is usually interpreted as A. A. B., but it could also be read as M. B. He left a cartouche, held by two eagles and topped by a ram's head....

Article

A. B.  

German (?), 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver (stippling).

Brulliot makes a reference to A. B. He produced decorations in gold and silver.

Article

French, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Active in Troyes.

Monogram of a glass painter.

School of Champagne.

According to Ris Paquot, A. L. B. worked at the church of St-Nizier.

Article

A. M.  

German, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of a draughtsman, engraver (wood).

The monogram A. M. is found on an engraving on wood of a View of the Town of Meissen.

Article

German, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Article

A. P.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an artist.

Cited by Defer; noted for his Statue of Diana at Ephesus. Probably the same artist as in the preceding entry.

Article

A. V.  

14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of an engraver.

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the Carta dos Coutos (Lisbon, Arquiv. N.). Work on the monastery started in 1158 and adhered to the rigid precepts of the Order. Although the exterior was extended and altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially the Baroque façade of the church, the interior essentially preserves its original Early Gothic appearance.

W. Beckford: Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha (London, 1835/R 1972) M. V. Natividade: Ignez de Castro e Pedro o Cru perante a iconografia dos seus túmulos (Lisbon, 1910) E. Korrodi: Alcobaça: Estudo histórico, arqueológico e artístico da Real Abadia de Alcobaça...

Article

Algarve  

Kirk Ambrose

Southern-most region of mainland Portugal. Its name is derived from ‘the West’ in Arabic. This region has relatively few medieval buildings: devastating earthquakes in 1722 and 1755 contributed to these losses, though many buildings were deliberately destroyed during the Middle Ages. For example, in the 12th century the Almoravids likely razed a pilgrimage church, described in Arabic sources, at the tip of the cape of S Vicente. Mosques at Faro, Silves and Tavira, among others, appear to have been levelled to make room for church construction after the Reconquest of the region, completed in 1249. Further excavations could shed much light on this history.

Highlights in the Algarve include remains at Milreu of a villa with elaborate mosaics that rank among the most substantial Roman sites in the region. The site further preserves foundations of a basilica, likely constructed in the 5th century, and traces of what may be a baptistery, perhaps added during the period of Byzantine occupation in the 6th and 7th centuries. The period of Islamic rule, from the 8th century through to the 13th, witnessed the construction of many fortifications, including examples at Aljezur, Loulé and Salir, which were mostly levelled by earthquakes. Silves, a city with origins in the Bronze Age, preserves a substantial concentration of relatively well-preserved Islamic monuments. These include a bridge, carved inscriptions, a castle, cistern and fortified walls, along which numerous ceramics have been excavated. Most extant medieval churches in Algarve date to the period after the Reconquest. These tend to be modest in design and small in scale, such as the 13th-century Vera Cruz de Marmelar, built over Visigothic or Mozarabic foundations. The relatively large cathedrals at Silves and at Faro preserve substantial portions dating to the 13th century, as well as fabric from subsequent medieval campaigns. Renaissance and Baroque churches and ecclesiastical furnishings can be found throughout Algarve....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

(fl 1388; d after 1450).

Italian painter and illuminator. Milanese writers from the humanist Uberto Decembrio (1350–1427) to Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo in the 16th century described Michelino as the greatest artist of his time. He was especially praised for his skill and prodigious talent in the naturalistic portrayal of animals and birds. Records of payments made in 1388 to a ‘Michelino pictore’ who painted scenes from the Life of St Augustine in the second cloister of the Augustinian convent of S Pietro in Ciel d’Oro, Pavia, are thought to be the earliest references to the artist. He was still resident in Pavia in 1404, when the Fabbrica (Cathedral Works) of Milan Cathedral decided to consult him as ‘the greatest in the arts of painting and design’. The frescoes in S Pietro in Ciel d’Oro and a panel by Michelino dated 1394 that was in S Mustiola, Pavia, in the 17th century have not survived, but two of the manuscripts with illumination firmly attributed to Michelino date from his time in Pavia: St Augustine’s ...

Article

Cassone  

Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

[It.: ‘chest’]

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate cassoni, painted and often combined with pastiglia decoration, were usually commissioned in pairs when a house was renovated for a newly married couple and were ordered, together with other furnishings, by the groom. Florence was the main centre of production, though cassoni were also produced in Siena and occasionally in the Veneto and elsewhere.

The earliest cassoni were simple structures with rounded lids, probably painted in solid colours, such as the red cassone in Giotto’s Annunciation to St Anne (c. 1305; Padua, Arena Chapel). The earliest known chests with painted designs are all from the same shop (e.g. Florence, Pal. Davanzati, inv. mob. 162). Like the much more numerous contemporary chests with gilded low-relief in pastiglia (...

Article

Libby Karlinger Escobedo

Illustrated manuscript (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, MS. 597/1424) of the Inferno by Dante Alighieri, probably made in Pisa c. 1345. Dante’s Inferno is the first part of his Divine Comedy, written sometime between 1308 and 1321, in which Dante himself, guided by the Roman poet Virgil, travels through the nine circles of Hell, encountering a variety of notable historical figures guilty of the various sins associated with each successive level. The many surviving manuscripts attest to the popularity of the text; more than 600 copies survive from the 14th century alone, including the Chantilly manuscript.

The Chantilly manuscript contains the Inferno as well as a Latin commentary on the text by Guido da Pisa. Most of the manuscript’s 55 miniatures accompany the commentary, though their iconography is drawn from the Inferno itself. The Chantilly manuscript is among the earliest illustrated copies of the Inferno and the only known illustrated copy of Guido da Pisa’s commentary. The manuscript includes the arms of the ...

Article

Gabriele Bartz

[Jacobo; Jacobus]

(fl 1398–1404).

South Netherlandish painter. He came from Bruges and is known only through written sources, the earliest of which places him in Paris in 1398, when he dictated instructions on the production of colours to Johannes Alcherius. Alcherius reproduced Coene’s instructions, with information from other French and Italian painters, in a treatise of 1411. In 1399, on Alcherius’s recommendation, Coene was one of the three consultants summoned to Milan to advise on the construction of the cathedral (see Mason, §IV, 3, (iii)). In a surviving contract, Coene was required to produce a drawing of the cathedral, from the base to the tip. In 1407 it was recorded that Jacques Raponde, acting for the Burgundian dukes Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, had paid on Philip’s behalf the sum of 20 francs to Coene in 1404 for a Bible in Latin and French. Coene worked on this commission with ...

Article

Maria Cristina Chiusa

[de Fesulis]

(fl c. 1393; d 1427).

Italian sculptor and architect, sometimes confused with Andrea (di Piero) Ferrucci (1465–1526), who was also known as Andrea da Fiesole. The only work that can definitely be attributed to the earlier of the two sculptors is the tomb of Bartolomeo da Saliceto (1412; ex-S Domenico, Bologna; Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), which is dated and signed opus Andreae de Fesulis. Saliceto was a reader in law at Bologna University, and the tomb sculpture represents him among his pupils. Motifs and facial types are borrowed directly from the tombs in the Bolognese tradition of Giovanni di Legnano (1383) by Pierpaolo dalle Masegne and of Carlo, Roberto, and Riccardo Saliceto (1403; both Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), a work indebted to Masegne, but despite this Andrea’s Tuscan origins remain apparent. Gnudi was of the opinion that Andrea da Fiesole was in Florence until c. 1410. However, Andrea subsequently moved away from the Tuscan Renaissance tradition towards a northern Gothic style, following his contact with Venetian–Emilian sculpture. This can be seen in the tomb of ...

Article

Robert G. Calkins

(fl 1380–1416).

Franco-Flemish draughtsman. He signed a sketchbook (Berlin, Staatsbib., lib. pict. A 74) consisting of studies of a variety of physiognomic types, occasional drawings of animals and a few more developed scenes of a pilgrimage, an innovative Man of Sorrows, an Annunciation and a Coronation of the Virgin. The stylistic, thematic and compositional similarities of some of these drawings, executed in grisaille on boxwood leaves, with manuscript illumination produced for Jean, Duc de Berry, especially those for the Hours of the Holy Ghost in the Très Belles Heures de Notre Dame (Paris, Bib. N., MS. nouv. acq. lat. 3093), suggest that Daliwe was employed at the Duc de Berry’s court c. 1380–1416. The drawings are thought to be trial sketches. They fall into four stylistic groups: one showing affinities with the style of Jacquemart de Hesdin and André Beauneveu; naturalistic studies related to the miniatures of the Livre de chasse (...

Article

Kim W. Woods

[Rouppi; de Rouppy; Rupy]

(fl 1375–6; d 1438).

South Netherlandish sculptor. The name de Rouppy suggests that he was born in the village of Roupy, near Saint-Quentin in the region of Cambrai. He is first documented among the stone-carvers working on the spire of Cambrai Cathedral in 1375–6. In 1386–7 he was paid a salary of 15 francs a month by Jean, Duc de Berry, the first indication that he was in the Duc’s service at Bourges, apparently working with the sculptor André Beauneveu. In 1397 he was referred to as the Duc’s ‘varlet de chambre’, and in 1401–2 as the ‘imagier’ of the Duc, presumably succeeding Beauneveu, who had previously held the post and who died in 1401–3. He received presents from Jean de Berry in 1401 and 1413, and the collar of broom-cods (one of the Duc’s emblems) was bestowed on him by the Duc’s nephew, Charles VI, King of France, in 1403.

In 1449 Jean de Cambrai’s heirs were paid 300 livres for the alabaster effigy of the Duc de Berry that he had carved for the ...

Article

M. Smeyers

[Esdin; Esdun; Hodin; Odin; Oudain]

(b ?Hesdin, Artois; fl 1384; d after 1413).

South Netherlandish illuminator, active in France. He was one of the Netherlandish artists who moved to France to work for the French royal family from the middle of the 14th century. By studying the work of Jean Pucelle and Italian painters he not only evolved his techniques of modelling and rendering of space but also modified the realism characteristic of Netherlandish painting to develop his own more refined style. On 28 November 1384 Jacquemart was paid for the first time by the administration of Jean, Duc de Berry (see Valois, House of family, §3). The payment concerned expenses that he and his wife had incurred in Bourges; he was also reimbursed for his clothing for the following winter months. Thereafter he was paid a regular salary by the Duc. In 1398, while he was working in the castle of Poitiers, he, his assistant Godefroy and his brother-in-law Jean Petit were accused of having stolen colours and patterns from Jean de Hollande, another painter in the service of the Duc de Berry. Jacquemart stayed temporarily in Bourges the following year....

Article

J. Steyaert

(d Oct 8, 1439).

Netherlandish sculptor, active in France. He was the nephew and follower of Claus Sluter. From his arrival in Dijon in December 1396 he was principal assistant to his uncle on the monumental Calvary group, the Moses Well, commissioned by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, for the cloister of the Charterhouse in Champmol near Dijon. After Sluter’s death in 1406, de Werve was named ‘tailleur d’ymages et varlet de chambre’ to Duke John the Fearless, a position renewed under Philip the Good. Between 1406 and 1410 he completed the marble and alabaster tomb of Philip the Bold (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.) begun by Jean de Marville and Sluter. De Werve travelled to Savoy in 1408 at the request of Duke Amadeus VIII, possibly to work on the Sainte-Chapelle at Chambéry. He was in Paris in 1411–12 and was sent to Grenoble in 1436 in an (unsuccessful) attempt to find alabaster for the tombs of ...