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Article

A. D.  

17th century, male.

Monogram of a draughtsman.

A monogram found on Indian ink drawings dated to 1633.

Article

15th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of a painter.

Cited by Ris-Paquot.

Article

A. M.  

German, 14th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of a draughtsman, engraver (wood).

The monogram A. M. is found on an engraving on wood of a View of the Town of Meissen.

Article

A. N.  

German, 17th century, male.

Monogram of a painter.

A.N. is thought to have worked in Leipzig. One of his works is dated 1600.

Article

A. R.  

Dutch School, 17th century, male.

Monogram of a painter. Portraits.

The painter known as A. R. was working in 1610. According to the catalogue, the monogram found on a work in the Hanover art gallery is rather unclear but is believed to be the initials A. R. and the date ...

Article

15th – 17th century (?), male.

Monogram of a draughtsman, engraver (wood).

Monogram found on a three-plate chiaroscuro etching of Absalom's Death at the Hands of Joab.

Article

(b Cologne, 1552; d Prague, March 4, 1615).

German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II (see Habsburg, House of family, §I, (10)), he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories.

Hans’s surname is derived from his father’s native town. According to Karel van Mander, he probably studied c. 1567–73 with the portrait painter Georg Jerrigh, who had trained in Antwerp. Von Aachen subsequently became a member of the Cologne guild of painters. He travelled to Italy c. 1574, first working in Venice as a copyist and for the painter Gaspar Rem (1542–1615/17), before going in 1575 to Rome, where he copied antique sculptures and the works of Italian masters; he also painted an Adoration of the Shepherds for the church of Il Gesù in Rome (1580s; untraced, but known from an engraving (...

Article

Dorigen Caldwell

[Abbate, Niccolò dell’]

(b Modena, 1509–12; d ?Fontainebleau, 1571).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was one of the most important artists of the first Fontainebleau school, which was developed at the French court by Rosso Fiorentino and Francesco Primaticcio, and he introduced the Italian Mannerist landscape into France.

He was almost certainly trained by his father, Giovanni dell’Abate (d 1559), a stuccoist, and by the sculptor Antonio Begarelli. Apparently after a period as a soldier, by 1537 he was working in Modena as a painter under Alberto Fontana (fl 1518–58). There the two artists decorated the façade of the Beccherie (Slaughterhouse) from which certain paintings survive (e.g. St Geminian and an allegory of the Wine Harvest; both Modena, Galleria e Museo Estense). His early paintings clearly show the influence of Correggio and of such Ferrarese artists as Dosso Dossi. They also display a love of the picturesque and the pastoral, with frequent variations on the theme of the concert, as in the fragment of a concert scene (Reggio Emilia, Mus. Civ. & Gal. A.) from the façade decorations of the Palazzo Pratonieri in Reggio Emilia. Around ...

Article

Ann Sutherland Harris

(b Città di Castello, c. 1600–05; d Rome, 1656).

Italian painter and mosaicist. He trained in the Roman studio of Cavaliere d’Arpino. He is principally known for executing fresco decorations in several chapels in Rome to designs by Bernini. Independent commissions, such as the frescoes depicting the Life of Charlemagne (1635–7; Rome, Vatican, Sala di Carlo Magno), reveal, however, that despite his collaboration with Bernini and later with Cortona, his preference was for a restrained classical style, close to that of more conservative contemporaries such as Andrea Camassei and Giovanni Francesco Romanelli. He assisted Bernini with the vault of the Raimondi Chapel in S Pietro in Montorio (1642–4) and that of the Pio Chapel in S Agostino (c. 1644–5). He also painted the vision of clouds and angels in the vault above Bernini’s marble group of St Teresa in Ecstasy (c. 1647; Rome, S Maria della Vittoria, Cornaro Chapel). In 1650 he executed independently the decorative frescoes on the ceiling and side walls of the sacristy of S Spirito in Sassia, Rome. He also executed mosaics in St Peter’s, after his own designs and those of ...

Article

17th century, male.

Born 1639, in Antwerp.

Painter, engraver, architect.

Engravings by Hendrik Abbé have survived in Antwerp cathedral and the artist is also cited by Heinecken as responsible for the illustrations to Ovid's Metamorphoses as published by Barrier. He is further believed to have been responsible for a ...

Article

French, 17th century, male.

Active in Rouen during the 17th century.

Painter, sculptor.

Pierre Abraham was one of the signatories of the statutes of the corporation of painters and sculptors of Rouen on 17 September 1631.

Article

Dutch School, 17th century, male.

Active in Amsterdam in 1648.

Painter.

Article

Dutch, 17th century, male.

Born in the 17th century, in Amsterdam.

Painter.

Roelof Abrhamsz. purchased the right to exercise his profession on 26 January 1695.

Article

Abramo  

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Rimini.

Born 17th century, in Ticino (Switzerland).

Painter.

Marchesselli asserts that he was living in Rimini in 1650 and that he painted subjects for the Oratorio della Gomma and various works for the Bianchelli and Nanni palazzi.

Article

Dutch School, 17th century, male.

Born in Amsterdam.

Painter.

In 1701 Willem Abrams purchased the freedom of the city of Amsterdam, where he worked.

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Active in Antwerp.

Painter.

This artist is mentioned in 1676 as an apprentice, and in 1688 as a master.

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Rome from 1650 to 1690.

Painter, draughtsman.

Cited by Zani; believed to have drawn a representation of the goddess Minerva and a genie subsequently engraved by Barend van Baillin.

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Born 1582, probably in Antwerp; died c. 1643, probably in Antwerp.

Painter.

Wauter Abts was admitted as a free master of the Guild of St Luke in 1604. Two years later he married Cornelia de Mellelo. He had numerous pupils, including Adrian de Bie. Others, whose reputations were less noteworthy, include Mathias Machielsen, Leonhard Coymans, Frederick van Gelder, Michael Giskeir, Alex Pourre, Egid van Haelbeeck, Philip Garibaldo and Cornelis Bocx....

Article

Swiss, 17th century, female.

Born 21 August 1588, in Schwyz; died 2 February 1669.

Painter.

A painting by this artist is preserved at the Capuchin church in Arth.

Article

Term applied to a drawn or painted representation of the human figure, most commonly made as part of the instruction in an academy or art school. Although the practice of making drawings from nude models had developed during the Renaissance and was commended by such theorists as Alberti, it was only with the foundation of academies of painting in the 17th century that such drawing became formalized as part of a rigorous programme of training. Indeed, by the mid-18th century, the word ‘académie’ was defined in Diderot’s Encyclopédie as ‘a public school where painters go to draw or paint, and sculptors to model, after a nude man called the model’. In France one of the principal means by which the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture asserted its predominance was by maintaining a monopoly on life classes. After the student had mastered the difficulties of copying engravings and plaster casts, he was set to draw from the nude figure under the supervision of the professor. The model was almost invariably male because female models were forbidden at the Académie Royale, and elsewhere they were extremely expensive to hire. Classes lasted two hours, and the pose was usually changed twice a week. The student began by drawing with red chalk on white paper and later progressed to black chalk on tinted papers, applying white chalk for highlights. Such drawing was an exercise in shading, hatching, graining and stumping, and increasingly the results became so homogeneous in style that unsigned examples are almost impossible to attribute. Painted academy figures (...