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[Châlons-sur-Marne]

Collegiate church in Champagne, Marne, France. A chapel is known to have existed on the site from at least the 9th century ad. The church was a regular centre of pilgrimage, particularly after 1128, when an epidemic swept the country. In the 12th century Notre-Dame-en-Vaux was under the patronage of the cathedral chapter, but the canons of Notre-Dame vigorously resented any intervention in their administration. Conflicts easily flared up, culminating in a dispute (1180–87) concerning legal rights and prebends.

In 1157 a tower collapsed, initiating the complete reconstruction of the church. The first building campaign (1157–c. 1175) involved the lower levels of the nave and transept. At the same time, a cloister with an important sculptural programme was erected on the north side of the nave. After c. 1180 the construction of the church was interrupted, perhaps owing to the dispute with the cathedral chapter. It is likely that the cloister was already finished at that time. The church was completed in a second campaign from ...

Article

Clare Harris and M. E. Heston

[Kuchi Bandar]

City on the coast of Kerala, India. Facing the Arabian Sea, Cochin experienced strong contacts with Europe and other parts of Asia from early times, and signs of Portuguese, Chinese, Jewish, early Christian, Dutch and British influence are evident everywhere.

Clare Harris

St Thomas the Apostle is said to have visited the area in ad 52, making Cochin the oldest European settlement in India. The Moplah Christian colony dates from this period, and the first Jewish community in Cochin is said to have been established at around the same time; both Jewish and Syrian Christian communities are reported to have been well developed by the 8th century. A friar named Jordanus was in Cochin in 1347, Chinese travellers stopped there in 1409, and a Persian visited in 1442. Many of the early visitors to the port were seeking spices from the Kerala hinterland: in 1500 the Portuguese explorer Pedralvares Cabral (...

Article

Filipino, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1972, in Las Piñas City, Manila, Philippines.

Painter, sculptor. Religious subjects, socio-political themes.

Folk art, symbolism.

Anting-Anting Group.

Alfredo Esquillo Jr. graduated from the University of Santo Tomas College of Fine Arts in 1993. He first gained recognition when he won first prize in the ASEAN Art Awards in ...

Article

Filipino, 20th century, female.

Active in France fromc.1972.

Born 4 June 1942, in Guimbal (Iloilo), Philippines.

Engraver, collage artist. Figure compositions, religious subjects.

Ofélia Gelvezon-Téqui graduated in art from the University of the Philippines in 1964, and again in 1966, in English. In ...

Article

Malang  

Filipino, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1928, in Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines.

Painter, cartoonist, illustrator, printmaker. Local genre scenes, figures, landscapes, flora and fauna, folk art.

Saturday Group of Artists.

Malang (Mauro Malang Santos) learned how to draw at the age of ten from a private tutor. In ...

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

Article

Filipino, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Roxas City, Philippines.

Painter, assemblage artist, graphic designer. Religious, socio-political themes, historical subjects, objects.

Black Artists of Asia.

Norberto Roldan studied at the University of Santo Tomas, majoring in visual communication. He also took graduate courses in art studies at the University of the Philippines. In ...