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Article

Peter Grossmann

Site of a Christian city and pilgrimage centre in the Maryūt Desert, c. 45 km south-west of Alexandria, Egypt. It grew up around the shrine of St Menas, who was martyred during the persecution of the Christians instigated by Diocletian (reg 285–305). The ancient name of the site is not known, and the position of the saint’s grave had been long forgotten until, according to legend, several miracle cures led to its rediscovery. The place then quickly developed into an increasingly major centre of pilgrimage where, among other things, the so-called Menas ampules were manufactured as pilgrim flasks and achieved particular renown. The first excavations of the site were undertaken by ...

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Romec.1775.

Painter, engraver (burin), sculptor. Religious subjects. Statues.

Antonelli's work includes Halt During the Flight into Egypt (after Maratti), Christ on the Mount of Olives (Correggio), a Madonna and Child (Trevisani), and copies of various statues from the basilica of St Peter's....

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1605; died 1682, in Reggio Emilia.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Studied under Orazio Talami. His Feast during the Flight into Egypt and Death of St Alessio were painted for the church of S Filippo and subsequently engraved by Buonvicini.

Article

Bawit  

C. Walters

Site on the west bank of the River Nile, c. 16 km west of Daryūt in the province of Asyūt, Egypt. A large monastery with rich sculptural and painted decoration originally lay in the desert 1 km to the west. According to tradition it was founded by the monk ...

Article

Flemish, 15th – 16th century, male.

Died in Ghent.

Painter, miniaturist, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Bruges School, Flemish School.

The first member of his family to be an artist, Alexander Bening was to be followed by a number of Flemish miniaturists of particular importance in 16th-century Flanders. He entered the Ghent painters' guild on ...

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 1767, in Cremona; died 10 September 1801 or or.

Painter. History painting, religious subjects.

The son of Giuseppe Benini, this artist studied in Rome for ten years before returning to his native Cremona where, in 1795, he painted an altarpiece of ...

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Ferrara.

Painter.

Painted The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, The Birth of Christ and The Adoration of the Magi for the church of S Crispino; and a St Francis of Assisi for S Lorenzo.

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Large areas of the world that came under Muslim sway beginning in the 7th century—notably the Iberian peninsula, North Africa, Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and Central Asia—had sizeable Christian communities, and it took several centuries for Muslims to become the majority population in these regions. Christian minority communities continue to survive—and even flourish—in such regions as Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey and Iraq. Christians—as well as Jews, Zoroastrians and others—shared the visual vocabularies of their Muslim neighbors, if not their faith, and it is often difficult if not impossible to distinguish a work of “Islamic art” made for a Muslim from one made for a non-Muslim. Indeed, many of the craftsmen making “Islamic art” may have been Christians or Jews, for ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born in Oued-Zénati (Constantine), Algeria.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes.

Clarac studied under Louis Ferdinand Antoni and worked in her native Algeria. She is noted for a large number of views of Constantine and for religious paintings. She exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris, between ...

Article

Lucy-Anne Hunt, Hero Granger-Taylor and Dominic Montserrat

A disputed term adopted by art historians to denote early and medieval Christian art in Egypt as well as art undertaken for pagan patrons in Late Roman and Early Christian Egypt. ‘Copt’ derives from the pharaonic name for Egypt via the Greek aigyptos and the Arabic ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 January 1869, in El-Boulaida, Algeria; died 1935.

Painter. Figure compositions, religious subjects, figures, local scenes.

Alfred Dabat studied under Benjamin-Constant and Jean-Paul Laurens at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. His rich, harmonious palette did full justice to the sparkling colours of Algerian fabrics. His works most notably include ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born in Oran, Algeria.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits, still-lifes.

Alexandre Darmon exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants, the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Tuileries from 1931 onward.

Article

French, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1674, in Paris.

Sculptor. Religious subjects, figures.

He won the Prix de Rome in 1698 with Joseph's Cup Found in Benjamin's Bag and another prize in 1699 for his Jacob's Vision in Egypt when Going to Find His Son Joseph...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 18 January 1851, in Algiers; died 3 September 1913, in Oran, Algeria.

Sculptor, painter. Figures, religious subjects. Busts.

Victor Fulconis was the son of Louis Guillaume Fulconis. He studied first with his father and then attended the studios of Jouffroy, Cavalier and Bonassieux. He taught drawing and art and often worked with the architect Eugène Barthélemy....

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Active in South Africa, then naturalised.

Born 16 December 1903, in Grodzisk, near Warsaw; died 1938, in Cape Town.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman, engraver, monotype artist. Portraits, landscapes, figures, nudes, still-lifes, genre scenes, religious subjects, street scenes, interiors with figures.

Wolf Kibel fled Poland in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Active also active in Algeria.

Born 5 July 1817, in Narbonne; died 24 October 1887, in Mustapha, Algeria.

Painter, writer, musician. Religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes. Murals, designs for stained glass.

Orientalism.

Lazerges studied under François Bouchot and David d'Angers. He first visited Algeria in 1842 and moved there around 1861. He was the father of Jean Baptiste Paul Lazerges. Jean Raymond Hippolyte Lazerges exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1840 to 1887 with, among other works, ...

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Active in Milan.

Painter.

Works produced by Antonio Lucini for Milan include a Flight into Egypt and an Adoration of the Host for the church of S Babila, a St Vincent Ferrer and a Christ and Dominican Saints for the church of S Eustorgio, and three portraits for the Ospedale Maggiore....

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....

Article

French, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born c. 1657, in Dijon; died 18 September 1719, in Paris.

Painter. History painting, religious subjects, portraits.

He became an Academician on 30 June 1708, with two paintings, Flight to Egypt and Calling of the Apostles.

Orléans: Self-portrait (enamel...

Article

Mendes  

Robert S. Bianchi

Egyptian city in the Nile Delta, which flourished from at least the Old Kingdom (2575–c. 2150 bc) to the Christian era (c. ad 800). The site, which was first excavated by François Mariette in 1860, consists of two contiguous mounds. To the north is ...