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Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Hannelore Hägele

(b Pfarrkirchen, Upper Bavaria, c. 1660; d Augsburg, Jan 31, 1738).

German sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Johann Christian Bendl, with whom he trained. Having become a journeyman, he travelled for six years, probably to Bohemia and Venice. On his return he entered in 1684 the workshop in Augsburg of Johann Jakob Rill (fl c. 1686–99); on 26 November 1687 he was made a master and also became a citizen of Augsburg. He was the city’s leading sculptor during the late Baroque period; many important churches in and outside of Augsburg had sculptures by him. He worked mostly in wood, but also in stone, terracotta and stucco, and probably in ivory and metal as well. For jewellers and goldsmiths he produced models, such as a figure of St Sebastian (1714–15) and a crucifix (1716). His major work included two series of life-size statues: one, of the Apostles, for St Moritz and the other, of the ...

Article

Robin A. Branstator

[Morten]

(d Copenhagen, 1553).

Danish sculptor and architect. His sculptural work shows a precocious awareness of early Renaissance art, suggesting that he trained in the workshop of Claus Berg in Odense. He first served Christian II, King of Denmark (reg 1512–23), as architect and sculptor and had settled in Copenhagen by 1523. His tombstone sculptures equal or surpass his architectural successes. The first in his series of gravestone reliefs was of Elisabeth of Habsburg (c. 1523; Copenhagen, Nmus.), Christian II’s queen, a pendant to an earlier representation of King John (1503; Copenhagen, Nmus.), sculpted by Adam van Düren. The limestone high relief had a conventional Gothic framework but hinted at Bussaert’s mature work in the more naturalistic folds of Elisabeth’s gown. After Christian II fled to the Netherlands in 1523, Bussaert elected to remain in Copenhagen in the employ of the newly crowned Frederick I (reg 1523–34). Frederick rewarded Bussaert well, naming him master builder in ...

Article

Pedro Dias

[Manuel de Sousa]

(b Braga, c. 1650; d Tibães, 1716).

Portuguese sculptor. He was born to a family of craftsmen and later entered one of the many workshops of wood-carvers in Braga. In 1676, however, he entered the Benedictine order at its Portuguese mother house of Tibães, near Braga. Here he made statues and reliefs for the church of S Martinho. From this period date his St Benedict and St Gregory the Great and the relief of the Visitation, now in the Benedictine church, S Romão do Neiva. Between 1680 and 1683, during the abbotship of Frei João Osório, he made terracotta sculptures of the eight Virtues and the four Benedictine kings (Tibães, Sacristy), images that appear rather rigid and stereotyped.

Frei Cipriano da Cruz moved to Coimbra before July 1691, when it is recorded that he made the St Catherine in the chapel of the University of Coimbra. This contact with the main centre for sculpture in Portugal had a broadening effect on his art. His most important work outside Tibães is the group of serene and dignified sculptures (dispersed) that he made for the Colégio de S Bento (Benedict), Coimbra. This group includes his gilt and polychromed wooden ...

Article

Bohemian, 17th century, male.

Active in Prague.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

Bohemian School.

Ernst Heidelberger was represented in the exhibition Light and Darkness. Baroque Art and Civilisation in Bohemia ( Lumière et ténèbres, art et civilisation du Baroque en Bohême) at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Lille in ...

Article

German, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born probably in Kaufbeuren.

Sculptor.

Augsburg School.

Some German authorities claim Loy Hering as the first great sculptor of the High Renaissance in that country. There are said to be around 100 of his religious and funerary carvings in churches in Würzburg, Augsburg, Heilsbronn, Kastl, Münden and Vienna....

Article

Marie-Claire Burnand

(fl 1460; d Toul, 1491).

French architect and sculptor. Claims that he was born at Commercy in 1371 are unproven. Owing to the faulty reading of his lost epitaph in the Cordeliers’ church at Toul by Dom Calmet, his Christian name has been wrongly given as Rogier and the date of his death as 1460. From 1460 Jacquemin was engaged by the cathedral chapter of Toul as ‘masson’; in a document of 1474 he is described as ‘maître’. His most important work was for the façade of Toul Cathedral (now St Etienne), designed by Tristan de Hattonchatel (fl 1460). The original plans for the project have disappeared, so it is impossible to evaluate Jacquemin’s contribution to the creation of this magnificent Flamboyant façade, on which he worked until his death.

As a sculptor Jacquemin worked in the service of René II, Duke of Lorraine. In 1480 the latter commissioned an Annunciation (untraced) for the oratory of his palace, and in ...

Article

Eva de la Fuente Pedersen

(d ?Lund, after 1640, before Feb 14, 1642).

Danish sculptor and carver. He was the most prominent maker of church carvings in Skåne (now in Sweden) during the reign of Christian IV, King of Denmark and Norway (reg 1588–1648). In 1603, when buying 500 engravings, he was described as being ‘from Lund’. He moved to Lund presumably in the mid-1590s and stayed there for the rest of his life. The engravings that he purchased served as models for his sculptures, relief-cycles and ornamentation. In his youth he probably worked for the Köpinge Master (fl c. 1598–c. 1610). The earliest information about Kremberg dates from 1601, when it was mentioned that ‘Joachim Kringbergz’ had built an organ for Lund Cathedral. The most important achievements of his youthful period up to 1609 are the pulpits in the churches at Höör and Löderup. The pulpit (1612), altarpiece (1612) and font (1621) from Gårdstånga church are the only documented extant works; together with the chapel screen (...

Article

Ludovico Borgo and Margot Borgo

[Paolo di Bernardino d’Antonio]

(b Pistoia ?1490; d Pistoia, Aug 3, 1547).

Italian sculptor, painter and draughtsman. He was the son of Bernardino del Signoraccio (Bernardino d’Antonio; 1460–after 1532), a minor Pistoian painter, and is first recorded in 1513 as a monk of the Dominican convent of S Marco in Florence. In that year he made two clay statues of St Dominic and St Mary Magdalene (both untraced) that in 1516 were placed in S Maria Maddalena in Pian di Mugnone.

His first documented painting is a fresco of the Crucifixion (1516; Siena, Santo Spirito), done with the assistance of Fra Agostino, showing a type of composition invented by Fra Bartolommeo for miniaturized painting. The figure of Christ, however, is derived from Albertinelli’s Crucifixion (Florence, Certosa del Galluzzo (also known as di Val d’Ema)). During these years Fra Paolino must have worked as an assistant to Fra Bartolommeo, but his precise contributions remain difficult to isolate. He was obviously admired within S Marco, however, since, on Fra ...

Article

(fl second half of 17th century).

Portuguese sculptor. He is associated with a school of sculpture that flourished in the second half of the 17th century and was based in the Cistercian abbey of Sta Maria, Alcobaça (see Alcobaça Abbey, §1), the largest foundation of this order in Portugal. It is known from chronicles by authors living in the abbey that the White Friars were responsible for the sculpture decorating their buildings and that their workshop supplied statues for other public institutions as well as for commissions from private individuals, such as Dom António Alvares da Cunha, Lord of Tábua, who became a patron in 1678. It is not possible to attribute any specific group of statues to Frei Pedro, but contemporary documents indicate that he was the leading artist and head of the workshop at Alcobaça towards the end of the 17th century. One relief attributed to him, depicting the Death of St Bernard...

Article

German, 17th century, male.

Died 1691, in Constance.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

Schenck, whose work had certain similarities with Baroque, was inspired by the traditions of mannerism, which prevailed in the region of Lake Constance. Particularly notable is the powerful musculature of his figures carved in wood....

Article

Géza Jászai

[Jodocus] [Pelsers, Joest]

(b Vreden, c. 1473–4; d Marienburg, nr Dülmen, Dec 16, 1540).

German sculptor. In 1493 he entered the Carthusian monastery of Marienburg, becoming procurator in 1506 and prior in 1531. He presumably learnt his skills in the pottery town of Vreden, Westphalia. He produced devotional pictures and house altars as low reliefs completely in the tradition of the Utrecht ‘picture bakers’ or ‘picture makers’ using white pipeclay and fired hollow moulds ( see Netherlands, Kingdom of the §VII 1. ). He signed most of his works Judocus Vredis or F[rater] Judocus Vredis Cartus[iensis]. His subject-matter was strictly limited: the Virgin as the Queen of Heaven, the Holy Trinity, the Annunciation, the Crucifixion, the virgin martyrs—SS Catherine of Alexandria, Barbara, Margaret, and Dorothy—and also SS Anne and Mary Magdalene. He mainly worked from drawings by Master E.S. and Israhel van Meckenem (ii), elaborately decorating the figures formed in the mould and modelling them while the clay was soft using stencils, small metal stamps, and punches. He embellished the hems of robes and headgear and added attributes, inscriptions, flowers, leaves, and fruit. Most of his surviving work is in the ...

Article

(b Deggendorf, May 8, 1710; d Hildesheim, April 11, 1781).

German painter and sculptor. Formerly thought to be the brother of Johann Christian Thomas Winck, he in fact acquired his surname from a stepfather. Nor was he the grandfather of the sculptor Friedrich Carl Franz Winck (1796–1859). He probably started his training in Augsburg—his antecedents lie in south German late Baroque—and may have served his apprenticeship and journeyman years in Holland. He was in Mannheim in 1743 and then worked in Hildesheim, providing an allegorical ceiling painting (1743–4, 1752–3; destr.) for the renovated Rittersaal in the cathedral, and in Brunswick, where he executed a stucco relief for the main gable of the opera house (1747–8; destr. 1864).

Winck married in 1753 in Hildesheim and executed commissions for its prince-bishop during the following years. The Legend of St Clement (c. 1755–8) on the ceiling of the chapel of Schloss Liebenburg (Goslar) is one of his most mature works. Although it is painted on a flat ceiling, perspective is used to give the illusion of a vault, with standing figures from scenes relating to the saint’s life encircling his apotheosis in the centre of the picture and forming the edge of the apparent vault. The apse is painted with illusionistic architectural features, and the altarpiece shows the ...