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Article

Chilean, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Paris.

Painter.

Barreda Fabres studied architecture at the Catholic university in Santiago and taught history of art in the architecture faculty from 1950 to 1955. He used a realist technique to paint constructions that belong to the world of the uncanny and the surreal. He took part in exhibitions in North America, Latin America and Europe and received many awards....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 November 1836, in Bologna; died 1927.

Painter, watercolourist. Religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views.

Luigi Bazzani studied at the Accademia in Bologna and, following visits to France and Germany, was appointed professor at the Accademia in Rome. He exhibited from ...

Article

Vincent Lombard, Donato Notarnicola and Jhemel Zioua

(b Paris, June 7, 1876; d Quebec, July 5, 1944).

French architect and monk. He was the son of an architect and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He was a brilliant student and obtained his diploma in 1901. After a trip to Spain and Italy, where he produced some beautiful watercolours that earned him a special mention at the Salon in Paris (1901), he decided to become a monk and entered the Benedictine monastery at Solesmes, Sarthe. At this time, religious communities exiled from France needed many new buildings, and Bellot was sent to the Netherlands in 1906 to extend a monastery there. He learnt how to build in brick, a material he used for the rest of his life, and he also became acquainted with H. P. Berlage and Modernist Dutch architecture. Bellot worked in the Netherlands and on the Isle of Wight, England, until 1920, producing many fine yet low-cost buildings in brick. His inventiveness, allied to an admiration for medieval architecture and the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc, led him to develop a style that had neo-Gothic aspects, clearly expressing structure and giving an impression of lightness and balance as much as mass and weightiness, and he used brick to create both structure and decoration....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Pouilly-sur-Loire; died 1944, in Fontainebleau.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist. Figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, harbour scenes, church interiors, architectural interiors, still-lifes.

Boitiat was an inspector of primary education. He put on an exhibition at Fontainebleau in 1938. In 1986...

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], March 28, 1864; d Oslo, June 2, 1953).

Norwegian architect and designer. He was trained as a draughtsman and technician in Christiania (1883–4) and completed his education as an architect in Berlin (1884–7). He started his own practice in Christiania in 1888, serving also as a teacher at the Royal School of Design there from 1908 and as director from 1912 to 1934. Early on he demonstrated an extraordinary ability as a draughtsman and a thorough knowledge of architectural history; he was equally interested in the traditional buildings of his own country and international contemporary trends. Bull’s first buildings in Christiania, such as the Paulus Church (1889–92) and Mogens Thorsen’s home for the elderly (1896–8; destr.), are historicist, although freely so. The high spire of the Gothic-Revival church, which is of red brick with details in glazed tiles, provides a landmark for Georg Bull’s earlier Grünerløkka development. In the National Theatre (...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 5 November 1867, in Verona.

Painter. Figure compositions, religious subjects, portraits, architectural views.

Viscardo Carton was a pupil of Napoleone Nani at the academy in Verona, and of Luigi Cavenaghi in Milan.

He painted altar pictures and frescoes in churches and private houses....

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Genre scenes, church interiors, interiors with figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Cesbron was the son of Achille Théodore Cesbron. He is particularly known for his Corner for the Poor, Abbey Church of Fécamp, View of a Monastery...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1823, in Paris; died 1907, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, designer. Church interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Stage sets.

Philippe Chaperon was set designer at the Opéra in Paris, producing most of the sets for French subsidised theatres, as well as the main theatres in France and abroad and the Expositions Universelles. He painted watercolours based on nature. He was the father of Eugène and Émile Chaperon, who took over from him....

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 October 1865, in Brussels; died 1959.

Painter, decorative designer, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes.

Dierickx was a pupil of Jean Portaels and Joseph Stallaert. In 1887 he won the Godecharle Prize, which enabled him to travel in Italy. He regularly participated in the activities of the ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Bergamo.

Born 1844, in Bergamo; died 1911, in Rome.

Painter, watercolourist. Figures, architectural views, church interiors, architectural interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes.

Stefano Donadoni worked on interiors of churches and palaces. His major works include Ancient Bergamo, The Goatherd...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1840, in Chicago; died 27 January 1912, in Munich.

Painter, draughtsman. Genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views, ruins, church interiors, interiors.

Charles Dyer began his career in the Navy and the diplomatic corps (he was consul in Bristol and then Beirut). He left the diplomatic corps to devote himself to painting under the guidance of L. Jacquesson de la Chavreuse in Paris. In ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1861, in Milan; died 1932.

Painter, watercolourist. Church interiors, waterscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views.

Arturo Ferrari's master was the Milanese painter Giuseppe Bertini. His work frequently appeared at exhibitions held at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan. He also exhibited in Paris (where he won a silver medal at the ...

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1848, in Copenhagen; died 1912.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator. Interiors, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, architectural views, ruins, interiors, church interiors.

Copenhagen: View of St Mark's in Venice; View of the Villa Borghese in Rome

Copenhagen (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek): View of the Tomb of A.J. Varstens in Rome...

Article

Cornelia Bauer

(b St Gall, Oct 1, 1858; d Lucerne, Jan 11, 1927).

Swiss architect. After studying architecture for two years (c. 1876–8) at the Hochschule, Stuttgart, under Adolf Gnauth and Christian Friedrich Leins (1814–92), he travelled in Italy and France. From 1879 he worked primarily in St Gall, but he also worked elsewhere in Switzerland. He won a gold medal at the Vatican Exhibition (1887–8), and in 1888 he was made a Knight of St Gregory the Great by Pope Leo XIII. Hardegger was an eclectic architect, using all the traditional historicist styles. His designs were often asymmetrical and irregular in both plan and elevation, as in the church of St Martin (1908–10), Olten; they also incorporated painting and sculpture, for example in the Haus zum Bürgli (before 1890), at St Gall, and they emphasized regional traditions, as at the parish church of Göschenen (1898–9). Following the construction of the parish church at Gossau (...

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Copenhagen.

Born 22 November 1851, in Holstebro; died 1933.

Painter. Interiors with figures, church interiors, landscapes, architectural views.

Received an honourable mention at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889.

Copenhagen (Den Hirschsprungske Samling): Landscape near Næstved

Copenhagen (Statens Mus. for Kunst): ...

Article

Norwegian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 July 1871, in Drontheim.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits, landscapes.

Gabriel Kielland was a pupil of Alfred Roll in Paris and worked largely in his native Drontheim. He was also an architect.

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 18 March 1869, in Besançon; died 17 January 1936, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Figures, church interiors, landscapes, waterscapes, harbour scenes, seascapes, architectural views, still-lifes, animals, flowers.

Paul Krön exhibited humorous drawings as a child in a gift shop in Marseilles. He was spotted by Monticelli, who advised him to learn from nature rather than follow formal training. He has been described as one of those artists who combined Fauvism with Impressionism....

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 November 1850, in Lübeck; died 9 January 1915, in Dresden.

Painter. Figures, genre scenes, interiors with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, church interiors, architectural views.

Dresden Secession group.

From 1871 to 1879, Gotthardt Johann Kuehl studied at the art academy in Munich with Diez, then spent several years in Paris where he was advised by Fortuny. In ...

Article

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 20 June 1860, in Barcelona; died 23 February 1926, in Barcelona.

Painter. Figure compositions, religious subjects, figures, landscapes.

Symbolism.

Juan Llimona Bruguera studied painting and architecture at the Sant Jordi school of fine arts in Barcelona. When his brother won a Fortuny scholarship, he accompanied him to Rome where they lived together for three years. In his religious works his dreamy, melancholic female figures show the influence of Puvis de Chavannes. His landscapes, infused with luminosity, show a delicate touch. He also executed the murals in the law courts of Barcelona....