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Howard Morphy, Andrée Rosenfeld, Peter Sutton, Ian Keen, Catherine H. Berndt, Ronald M. Berndt, Paul Memmott, Kate Khan, Betty Meehan, Carol Cooper, Luke Taylor, Robert Layton, J. V. S. Megaw, M. Ruth Megaw and Francesca Cavazzini

Culture of the original inhabitants of Australia and their descendants. This survey covers the traditional art forms of the Australian Aborigines, such as rock art, sculpture in wood, clay and sand, body decoration, and bark painting, both before and after European colonization took place at the end of the 18th century. It also examines the interrelationships between the art of Aboriginal groups living in different regions on the continent. Traditional art forms have continued to be produced in most regions well into the late 20th century, but at the same time some contemporary Aboriginal artists, influenced by the dominant white culture in which they now live, have begun to explore new forms and media; this art, produced mainly for external markets, is discussed separately.

Australia and New Guinea formed a single landmass, the prehistoric continent of Sahul, until c. 8000 years ago, when the rising sea-level separated them at the Torres Strait. This continent was first occupied at least 40,000 years ago, by people who arrived by boat from South-east Asia. By 30,000 ...

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Howard Morphy, Andrée Rosenfeld, Peter Sutton, Ian Keen, Catherine H. Berndt, Ronald M. Berndt, Paul Memmott, Kate Khan, Betty Meehan, Carol Cooper, Luke Taylor, Robert Layton, J. V. S. Megaw, M. Ruth Megaw and Francesca Cavazzini

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Article

Howard Morphy, Andrée Rosenfeld, Peter Sutton, Ian Keen, Catherine H. Berndt, Ronald M. Berndt, Paul Memmott, Kate Khan, Betty Meehan, Carol Cooper, Luke Taylor, Robert Layton, J. V. S. Megaw, M. Ruth Megaw and Francesca Cavazzini

In 

Article

Howard Morphy, Andrée Rosenfeld, Peter Sutton, Ian Keen, Catherine H. Berndt, Ronald M. Berndt, Paul Memmott, Kate Khan, Betty Meehan, Carol Cooper, Luke Taylor, Robert Layton, J. V. S. Megaw, M. Ruth Megaw and Francesca Cavazzini

In 

Article

Howard Morphy, Andrée Rosenfeld, Peter Sutton, Ian Keen, Catherine H. Berndt, Ronald M. Berndt, Paul Memmott, Kate Khan, Betty Meehan, Carol Cooper, Luke Taylor, Robert Layton, J. V. S. Megaw, M. Ruth Megaw and Francesca Cavazzini

In 

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Darrell Lewis

Site of Aboriginal culture, c. 100 km north-east of Broken Hill, in the arid country of western New South Wales, south-east Australia. It is known for its complex of pecked rock engravings; these are concentrated on an area of sloping sandstone pavements (c. 100×30 m), although others are more dispersed. Some are found along an ephemeral creek that leads to the base of the sandstone outcrop where there are several rock holes that provided the Aborigines with a permanent water-supply. The rock holes were discovered by Europeans in the mid-19th century and were visited by several exploring expeditions in the 1860s. Although the engravings are within sight of the water-holes, which were of great importance to European settlers and travellers in the region, they were not documented until the 1920s. The area containing the engravings and other Aboriginal relics was declared a reserve in 1927. It was subsequently incorporated into a larger National Park, and in ...

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Darrell Lewis

Aboriginal site in the Laura region of Cape York Peninsula, northern Queensland, Australia. The name refers to a group of seven rock shelters located near the head of a small gorge on an elevated sandstone plateau. These contain paintings and engravings that are typical of so-called Laura rock art (see Aboriginal Australia §II 2.). ‘Quinkan’ is an Aboriginal term for the malevolent spirit beings that are said to inhabit the bush in south-east Cape York. These spirit beings are often painted, usually with distorted body, limbs, head or genitals, in the region’s rock shelters. Other painted motifs in the Quinkan Galleries include male and female human figures, echidnas, fish, snakes, emu, emu eggs, ibis, dingo and stingray, as well as a palm tree, flying fox, crocodile, turtle, dilly bag and stencilled images of hands and boomerangs.

Most of the paintings in the Quinkan Galleries are full silhouettes in red, white or yellow, with outlines and infill patterns of grid lines, dashes or dots in a contrasting colour. Individual motifs may be as small as 200 mm, but many figures approximate or even exceed life-size. Human figures and spirit beings are usually depicted frontally, with large animals and birds shown in side view; low animals such as echidnas and crocodiles are shown from above. In the Quinkan sites and in many other galleries of the Laura area paintings are heavily superimposed; large, multicoloured painted surfaces with varied subject-matter create a visually striking effect. Engraved motifs in the Quinkan Galleries include pecked-out bird tracks and mazes of conjoined meandering grooves, circles and radiating lines, as well as outlines of circles and a human figure. Where they are found superimposed, most of the engraved motifs underlie paintings, although two circles appear to cut into pigments, indicating that the practice of engraving continued into fairly recent times. Most of the engravings appear to belong to the early phase of the Laura rock-engraving sequence: similar engravings at another Laura cave site, the ...

Article

Howard Morphy, Andrée Rosenfeld, Peter Sutton, Ian Keen, Catherine H. Berndt, Ronald M. Berndt, Paul Memmott, Kate Khan, Betty Meehan, Carol Cooper, Luke Taylor, Robert Layton, J. V. S. Megaw, M. Ruth Megaw and Francesca Cavazzini

In 

Article

Howard Morphy, Andrée Rosenfeld, Peter Sutton, Ian Keen, Catherine H. Berndt, Ronald M. Berndt, Paul Memmott, Kate Khan, Betty Meehan, Carol Cooper, Luke Taylor, Robert Layton, J. V. S. Megaw, M. Ruth Megaw and Francesca Cavazzini

In 

Article