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Muriel Porter-Weaver

Pre-Columbian culture and ceramic assemblage found in Mexico. It is named after the Capacha ceramics from Colima and part of Jalisco and the site of El Opeño in Michoacán, which flourished during the Early Pre-Classic period (c. 2000–c. 1000 bc). Similar ceramic assemblages from these sources, along with other shared cultural features, indicate early contact between Mesoamerica and north-west South America (see below).

The Capacha ceramic assemblage, radiocarbon dated to c. 1350 bc, was named by Isabel Kelly. It consists largely of pottery once placed in graves or tombs but subsequently looted. Although no living sites or mounds are known, the ceramics are the oldest so far found in Colima. The pottery is predominantly monochrome and made of a thick, heavy, grainy paste. The most common form is a large, open-mouthed jar with a cinctured body, measuring up to 380 mm high and locally called a bule...

Article

Stephen T. Driscoll

Scottish royal centre in Perthshire, which reached its zenith in the late Pictish period (8th–9th centuries ad) and is the source of an assemblage of high quality ecclesiastical sculpture. Occupying the fertile heart of Strathearn, Forteviot has been more or less in continuous use as a ceremonial centre since the 3rd millennium bc and is the focus of élite burials from the Early Bronze Age (c. 1900 bc) through to the Pictish era. Cinead mac Alpín (Kenneth mac Alpine), the king traditionally identified with the foundation of the Gaelic kingdom of the Scots, died at the palacium (palace) of Forteviot in ad 858. It was eclipsed as a royal centre by Scone in ad 906, but remained a significant royal estate until the 13th century.

The only surviving fabric of the palace is a unique monolithic arch, presumably a chancel arch, carved with three moustached Picts in classical dress flanking a crucifix (now in the Royal Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh). Fragments of at least four additional sandstone crosses indicate the presence of a major church, perhaps a monastery. The celebrated Dupplin Cross (now in Dunning Church) originally overlooked Forteviot from the north. This monolithic, free-standing cross (2.5 m tall) bears a Latin inscription naming Constantine son of Fergus, King of the Picts (...

Article

Joachim Hahn

Cave site in Moravia, Czech Republic. It is important for its remains dating from the Upper Palaeolithic period (c. 40,000–c. 10,000 bp): it is the only major site of the Magdalenian culture to have yielded a rich stone tool assemblage (see also Prehistoric Europe, §II, 4). The first excavations were conducted by Jan Knies in 1880, followed by Jindřich Wankel and Martin Křiž in 1884–5, Karel Absolon in 1925–30 and Bohuslav Klima in 1954 and 1961–4; the material recovered from the site is held by the Moravian Museum, Brno. Absolon described two Magdalenian levels and a Gravettian level with a ‘primitive’ Aurignacian level at its base; however, Klima found only a single Magdalenian level. The Upper Magdalenian assemblage included harpoon heads and was found in the same context as the remains of horses, reindeer, birds, hares, polar foxes, wolves, moose, red deer and perhaps aurochs....

Article

Joachim Hahn

Cave site in Kreis Heidenheim, Germany. It has yielded one of the earliest and best-executed assemblages of art objects of the Upper Palaeolithic period (c. 40,000–c. 10,000 bp; see also Prehistoric Europe §II ). Excavated in 1931 by Gustav Riek, Vogelherd has the longest known stratigraphic sequence in south-western Germany, having yielded Middle Palaeolithic, Micoquian, Mousterian, Aurignacian, Magdalenian and Early Neolithic stone tool assemblages. The most important in terms of the number of artefacts and bones recovered are the Aurignacian levels, which also yielded human skeletal remains belonging to the earliest known specimens of Homo sapiens sapiens in the region. The rich fauna comprised mammoths, horses, reindeer, rhinoceroses, red deer, cattle, chamois, wolves, foxes and lions. Radiocarbon dates for these levels range from c. 32,000 bp to c. 27,000 bp. During this period stone artefacts were produced on the terrace outside the cave, and many tools have been found in the interior, where most of the antler and bone artefacts were concentrated around a large hearth belonging to level V; almost all the art objects in the cave were also found in a single location, suggesting an intentional cache. The art material recovered from the site is exhibited by the university library, Tübingen, and the Altes Schloss, Württembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart....