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Article

Ahhotpe  

J. H. Taylor

(d c. 1550–1530 bc). Egyptian queen and patron. Perhaps the wife of King Kamose, she should be distinguished from the later Ahhotpe, mother of King Ahmose (reg c.1540–c.1514 bc). Her intact burial was discovered at Thebes in 1859...

Article

R. Krauss

King of Egypt in the late 18th Dynasty, son of Amenophis III and husband of Nefertiti. His reign was characterized by revolutionary changes in religion and art. Soon after his accession, Amenophis IV, as Akhenaten was at first known, began to build a temple complex at Thebes for the Aten, the disc-shaped manifestation of the traditional sun-god Re. In the fifth year of his reign, he founded a new capital in Middle Egypt at the site now known as ...

Article

Ancient Egyptian architect and patron. Amenhotpe rose to prominence in his home town during the reign of Amenophis III (reg c. 1391–c. 1353 bc) as a royal scribe and chief of the priests of the local god Khentekhtai. About 1390 bc he moved to the royal court at Thebes and was rapidly promoted by ...

Article

Ian M. E. Shaw

(reg c. 1391–c. 1353 bc). Egyptian ruler and patron. He reigned in the late 18th Dynasty (c. 1540–c. 1292 bc), a time of great national peace and prosperity. Amenophis III was a prolific builder: it was during his reign that ...

Article

Claude Vandersleyen

Egyptian ruler. Both architecture and sculpture have survived from his reign in the 12th Dynasty (for chronological chart of Egyptian kings see Egypt, ancient, fig.). He built two pyramids, one at Dahshur and the other at Hawara in the Faiyum region, where is also a small temple, finished by Ammenemes III’s successor, ...

Article

Fu Hao  

Anthony Barbieri-Low

Chinese consort to Wu Ding, the fourth Shang king to rule from the last capital of the dynasty, at a site near modern Anyang in Henan Province. The oracle bone inscriptions found at Anyang reveal a glimpse of Fu Hao’s life and career, but her tomb, discovered in ...

Article

Peter F. Dorman

(reg c. 1479–c. 1458 bc). Ancient Egyptian ruler of Egypt and patron. Daughter of Tuthmosis I and princess of the royal blood, Hatshepsut married her half-brother Tuthmosis II and, at the death of her father, became queen consort. Her considerable influence as queen and ‘god’s wife’ of Amun continued unabated when her father died, and she acted for several years as regent for the young Tuthmosis III, her nephew and stepson. For reasons that remain conjectural, Hatshepsut assumed pharaonic titles, probably in year seven of Tuthmosis’s reign, and insinuated herself as the senior partner of a co-regency....

Article

Alain-Pierre Zivie

(reg c. 1319–c. 1292 bc). Ancient Egyptian ruler and patron of the post-Amarna period. The reign of Horemheb was rich and fascinating in terms of art and architecture, although the amount of evidence is small and the situation is confused by the large number of monuments usurped from his predecessors. It would be too simplistic to consider him merely as one who restored order and traditional religious cults after the so-called anarchy or revolution of the reign of Akhenaten (...

Article

Ann Macy Roth

(reg c. 2490–c. 2472 bc). Egyptian king of the 4th Dynasty (c 2475–c. 2465 bc), whose pyramid was the third and smallest of the group at Giza (see Giza, §1). The tomb of Mycerinus may have actually been more extravagant than those of his predecessors, since he seems to have intended to case it entirely in red granite. However, he died before the pyramid could be completed, and its upper courses were cased in limestone, while the attached temple complex was finished in mud brick by his successor, ...

Article

Narmer  

M. S. Drower

(reg c. 3000 bc). Ancient Egyptian ruler. A series of small sculptures bear the name of Narmer, who was the last predynastic king of Egypt and who is identified by some with the traditional first pharaoh, Menes. Objects bearing Narmer’s name were found at ...

Article

C. A. Keller

(fl c. 1270 bc). Egyptian queen of the 19th Dynasty. Nefertari was the Great Royal Wife of Ramesses II (reg c. 1279–c. 1213 bc) during at least the first half of his reign. By far the most prominent of the royal spouses of this king, she is well attested in both Egyptian and cuneiform texts and is represented on numerous royal monuments throughout Egypt and Nubia. At ...

Article

R. Krauss

Egyptian queen, principal wife of Akhenaten. Throughout Akhenaten’s reign only Nefertiti was afforded the status of Great Royal Wife, enjoying privileges never bestowed on the spouse of any other Egyptian king before or since. She was the mother of six daughters. The date of her death and the location of her tomb are unknown....

Article

(reg c 1279–c. 1213 bc). Egyptian ruler and patron of the 19th Dynasty. He was responsible for the largest number of buildings and statues in the whole of ancient Egyptian history (even including those from the 18th Dynasty reign of Amenophis III). His most important and well-preserved works (buildings and notable bas-reliefs) are, from north to south, at ...

Article

Claude Vandersleyen

(reg c 1187–c. 1156 bc). Egyptian ruler and patron. The principal surviving monuments of Ramesses III, the most important king of the 20th Dynasty, are his huge mortuary temple at Medinet Habu (see Thebes, §VII) and two small ‘bark-temples’ (shrines containing the divine bark), the entrance to one of which is today in the first court of the ...

Article

Peter F. Dorman

(fl c. 1473–c. 1458 bc). Egyptian official. Perhaps the most powerful courtier during the co-regency of Tuthmosis III and Hatshepsut, Senenmut began his career as steward of the queen-consort Hatshepsut. His ascent to power culminated with the accession of Hatshepsut to the throne of Egypt, whereupon he was appointed great steward of the god Amun, his primary title among many lesser administrative and religious offices. His considerable influence doubtless derived partly from his association with Hatshepsut and partly from his control over the worldly possessions of the burgeoning estate of Amun. Senenmut is commonly described as the architect of ...

Article

Claude Vandersleyen

Egyptian ruler of the 12th Dynasty. The brick pyramid of Sesostris III (for chronological chart of Egyptian kings see Egypt, ancient, fig.) at Dahshur is the only surviving evidence of his architectural activity. It has been possible to reconstruct the plan of a temple of Sesostris III at ...

Article

C. A. Keller

(reg c. 1290–c. 1279 bc). Egyptian ruler and patron, second ruler of the 19th Dynasty. The inclusion in his own titulary of the expression wehem–meswt (Egyp.: ‘renaissance’) explicitly stated the rationale for his vigorous political and architectural activity: in his aggressive military policy he sought to emulate the achievements of Tuthmosis III (...

Article

Carol Michaelson

The first Chinese dynasty for which there is both archaeological and historical evidence, dating from c. 1600 bc to c. 1050 bc. Established by a tribal chieftain, Shang culture was centred on the Yellow River plain and at times controlled modern northern Henan Province and parts of modern Shandong, Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces. Twentieth-century archaeology has provided much detail about the dynasty, retrieving it from the legendary period. Great advances in bronzeworking and other technologies were made in the Shang, leading to a high level of civilization. Remains of sacrifices and fighting accoutrements are particularly pertinent to the aristocratic class; inevitably, much less is known about the lower classes....

Article

Ian M. E. Shaw

(fl c. 2465 bc). Egyptian chief lector–priest. His mastaba tomb (labelled C8) is near the pyramid of the 5th Dynasty king Userkaf (reg c. 2465–c. 2458 bc) in North Saqqara. An uninscribed wooden standing statue (Cairo, Egyp. Mus., CG 34) was found in Tomb C8 when it was excavated by ...

Article

Marianne Eaton-Krauss

(reg c. 1332–c. 1323 bc). Ancient Egyptian king of the late 18th Dynasty. His virtually intact Theban tomb (numbered KV 62) was discovered at the Valley of the Kings, in 1922, by Howard Carter. The art of Tutankhamun’s reign epitomizes the immediate post-...