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Patricia Strathern

(b Fleurieux, Rhône, May 2, 1828; d Paris, Oct 24, 1915).

French photographer, archaeologist, and writer. An intrepid traveller, he used photography as a method of recording and documenting the sites he explored and wrote about. He left for the USA in 1857, spending two years in Mexico from 1857 to 1859. Using the wet collodion process and large plates, his photography (e.g. Mexico—Chichen Itza, c. 1858; see Berger and Levrault, cat. no. 40) was something of a technical feat in the circumstances. He returned to Europe in 1861, and his first book, Antiquités mexicaines, was published the same year. In 1863 he photographed in Madagascar and from 1864 to 1880 worked in South America, Java, Australia, and Canada. In 1880 he returned to Mexico, where he made some important archaeological discoveries in Pre-Columbian sites.

See also: Pre-Columbian sources in American architecture; Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §X, 1.

Article

(b 1856; d 1944).

German archaeologist. His pioneering work in Peru and Bolivia between 1892 and 1912 revolutionized the archaeological study of Pre-Columbian South America. Uhle was trained as a philologist but later took up archaeology. His interest in Peru began when he was curator of the Dresden Museum. From 1892 he conducted field research for the universities of Pennsylvania and California, excavating on the Peruvian coast at Pachacamac and on Moche and Chimú sites. He worked in the valleys of the Chincha and Ica, discovering the production sites of Nazca ceramics. He later extended his work into the Peruvian highlands and to Bolivia, Ecuador and Chile; he also made a notable contribution to North American archaeology with his excavations of the Emeryville shell-mound in San Francisco Bay. His rigorous approach, influenced by the systematic excavations of Flinders Petrie in Egypt, emphasized stratigraphic excavation and the ordering of finds in an evolutionary sequence as a means of establishing chronology. The basic chronological framework he established for Pre-Columbian South America has only been superseded in the later 20th century....