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Gensler  

Sara Stevens

American architectural firm started by Arthur Gensler Drue Gensler, and Jim Follett in 1965 in San Francisco, CA. M. Arthur Gensler jr (b Brooklyn, New York, 1935) attended Cornell University to study architecture (BArch, 1957). The firm began doing build-outs for retail stores and corporate offices, and initially established itself in the unglamorous area of interior architecture. Thirty years later and without mergers or acquisitions, it had grown to become one of the largest architecture firms in the world, having pioneered the global consultancy firm specializing in coordinated rollouts of multi-site building programmes. By 2012 the firm had over 3000 employees in over 40 offices. From the beginning, Art Gensler conceived of a global firm with multiple offices serving corporate clients whose businesses were becoming more international. Instead of the ‘starchitect’ model of his contemporaries such as I. M. Pei or Paul Rudolph, Gensler wanted an ego-free office that existed to serve client needs, not pursue a designer’s aesthetic agenda at the client’s expense. By adopting new web-based computing technologies and integrated design software in the early 1990s, the firm stayed well connected across their many offices and were more able than their competitors to manage large multi-site projects. Expanding from the services a traditional architecture firm offers, the company pushed into new areas well suited to their information technology and interiors expertise, such as organizational design, project management, and strategic facilities planning....

Article

Anthony Gardner

(b Singapore, July 12, 1959).

Malaysian conceptual artist, active also in Australia. Gill studied at the University of Western Sydney, completing her MA in 2001. Despite working in a range of media, she is best understood as a process-based artist who has consistently explored notions of migration and transformation within material culture. These include the effects of international trade on such everyday activities as cooking and eating. The spiral form of Forking Tongues (1992; Brisbane, Queensland A.G.), for example, entwines Western cutlery and dried chillies from the Americas and Asia, highlighting how foods and utensils from across the globe have come together to transform local cuisines and inform culinary habits. Gill’s later photographic series refer to other understandings of migration, such as the spread of the English language or of capitalist desire throughout South-east Asia in recent decades. For Forest (1998; Sydney, Roslyn Oxley9 Gallery; see Chua), Gill cut out words and sentences from books written in English, placed the texts within tropical landscapes and photographed the results before the books’ paper began rotting into the humid environment. For ...

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Rory Spence

American architects and designers, also active in Australia and India. Marion Mahony Griffin (née Mahony) (b Chicago, 14 Feb 1871; d Chicago, 10 Aug 1961) worked together with her husband Walter Burley Griffin (b Maywood, IL, 24 Nov 1876; d Lucknow, 11 Feb 1937) after their marriage in 1911. She was the second woman to graduate in architecture (1894) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, and worked for Dwight Perkins (1867–1941) before joining Frank Lloyd Wright’s studio in 1895. There she produced many of the perspective drawings for Wright’s designs, including several of those used for the influential Wasmuth portfolio Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe von Frank Lloyd Wright (Berlin, 1910), which are among the finest architectural drawings of the 20th century. After Wright’s departure from Chicago in 1909, she assisted Hermann von Holst, who took over his practice. In Wright’s studio she also met Walter Burley Griffin, who had studied architecture (...

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Nadia Tscherny

(b London, Oct 28, 1744; d Brixham, Devon, March 6, 1797).

English painter. He first attended classes at William Shipley’s Academy in the Strand, London, and from 1758 to 1765 was apprenticed to Richard Wilson (about whom he published a short biographical essay in 1790). Hodges followed Wilson’s classical landscape style periodically throughout his career, but, particularly during his travels, he also occasionally abandoned it in favour of freer handling, bolder juxtapositions of colour and a more empirical response to the natural world.

In 1765 Hodges joined the Incorporated Society of Artists and became a regular exhibitor. The Pantheon, Oxford Street, London (Leeds, C.A.G.), an important early example of his interest in architecture and effects of natural light, was exhibited in 1772, as were some views of Switzerland and Germany made from a trip across the Alps the previous year. In 1772 he travelled as the official artist on Capt. James Cook’s second voyage to the South Pacific. As the ...

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Michael Hitchcock, Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

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Philip Stott, Miranda Bruce-Mitford, J. Dumarçay, Frederick Mathewson Denny, Jan Fontein, R. Soekmono, Helen Ibbitson Jessup, Victor T. King, Urs Ramseyer, Michael Hitchcock, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, John N. Miksic, Ruth Barnes, Mattiebelle Gittinger, Ward Keeler, Angela Hobart, Victoria M. Clara van Groenendael, Wolfgang Marschall, Bernard Arps, H. I. R. Hinzler, Sian E. Jay, Dawn F. Rooney, Robert S. Wicks, Daniëlle Grosheide and Lewis G. Hill

[formerly Dutch East Indies]

Country in South-east Asia comprising over 13,700 islands that extend in an arc straddling the equator, from Sumatra, west of Peninsular Malaysia, to the island of New Guinea, north of Australia (see fig.). Irian Jaya, the easternmost province of Indonesia, comprises the western half of the island of New Guinea; its population and cultures are Melanesian rather than Indonesian, and it is therefore treated elsewhere (see Irian Jaya). Kalimantan, in the centre of the archipelago, comprises most of the island of Borneo (the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, with Brunei, account for the remainder). The three next largest islands are Sumatra (see fig.), Sulawesi (Celebes) and Java (see fig.). Of the groups of smaller islands, the largest are Maluku (Moluccas)—a term formerly used to denote only the five small clove-producing islands of Tidore, Ternate, Motir, Makian and Bacan but now embracing all the islands between Sulawesi, Timor and Irian Jaya—and Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sundas), a chain of islands stretching from Bali (...

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Sarah Cook and Marialaura Ghidini

[net art]

Sarah Cook and Marialaura Ghidini

Art that uses the Internet not only as its tool of production and distribution but also as its source material or medium, and exploits or reflects the Internet’s inherently connective characteristics. While not a distinct art form or style, Internet art has been discussed in connection to the history of media art, predominantly through studies of the screen (see Bosma, 2013; Manovich, 2001) and the way things are framed, including still or moving images (see Video art and New media art in India). Internet art exceeds this narrow definition and its lineage can be better understood in the context of telecommunications, with a focus on information exchange and its occurrences through networked channels of transmission and their inherent politics. Because of this it is linked to Conceptual art practices, including intermedia art, Fluxus, and Correspondence art (such as the work of Knowles, Alison...

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A. A. Gerbrands

[formerly West New Guinea; Western New Guinea; West Irian; Irian Barat]

Indonesian province, comprising the western half of New Guinea and surrounding islands, with a population of c. 2.7 million. Formerly a Dutch colony, it was administered by Indonesia under the authority of the United Nations from 1963 until 1969, when it was formally incorporated into the Republic of Indonesia. Culturally Irian Jaya is generally classified as Melanesian rather than Indonesian. Its art has been quite widely studied and illustrated (see bibliography). There are also a number of important museum collections, both in Irian Jaya itself (e.g. Agats, Asmat Mus. Cult. & Prog.) and in the West (e.g. New York, Mus. Primitive A.: Basle, Mus. Vlkerknd.; Amsterdam, Tropenmus.; Leiden, Rijksmus. Vlkenknd.).

A high mountain range divides Irian Jaya latitudinally into a mountainous northern part and, to the south, a flat, tropical lowland area characterized by vast marshes crossed by sluggish, muddy rivers and infested with mosquitoes and malaria. An inhospitable area, it is as difficult to access from the sea as from the mountainous interior. Perhaps as a result of the country’s physical geography, the cultures and ...

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Philip Stott

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H. I. R. Hinzler

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Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...

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William Main

(b Keboemen, Indonesia, 1915; d Australia, Aug 1985).

New Zealand photographer and decorative artist of Dutch origin. He was educated in the Netherlands and in New Zealand, where he attended the Canterbury School of Fine Arts, Christchurch, in 1939. Shortly after this he gradually withdrew from Western cultural influences and began to draw upon Asian and Polynesian influences for his artistic inspiration. While attempting to trace early examples of Maori art he studied cave drawings in remote parts of New Zealand, and also photographed geothermal formations in the centre of North Island. Influenced by the Maori artist Pine Taiapa, he revived an almost forgotten Maori art form by decorating gourds with intricate moko designs. Finally, he took up the carving of jade ornaments, and his success in this work led to the publication of his book Jade Country (1973). Dissatisfied with the way his work was received, he left New Zealand to live in Indonesia and Australia....

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Philip Stott

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Philip Stott

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Susie Lingham

(b Singapore, Nov 7, 1959).

Singapore-born installation artist, active in Australia . A recipient of numerous scholarships, Victor graduated from the University of Western Sydney with a BA Honours (1997) and an MA Honours (2000). Victor’s career ranged from prize-winning painter in the late 1980s, to ‘subversive’ in the early 1990s, and eventually to internationally esteemed artist with prestigious public art commissions to her name. Victor’s themes revolve around a critique of power and its subversion, sexuality and desire, notions of abjection and the cultural aftermath of post-colonialism in South-east Asia. Her work operates from a sophisticated, idiosyncratic aesthetic that runs counter to the dematerializing, technological trend of contemporary conceptual art. A key feature in her works is movement, achieved through mechanisms, engaging the viewer both physiologically and psychologically. The dynamic conflation of theatrical images, sumptuous materiality, movement, and multi-tiered concepts epitomizes Victor’s oeuvre.

As artistic director of 5th Passage Artists Ltd, an initiative established in Singapore (...

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